Uranium-Mining Practices and Costs at Ten Salt Wash Lease Operations of Union Carbide Nuclear Co. Page: 3
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except that the word "Company" was changed to "Corporation.".5/ The name
"United States Vanadium Co." was again used from 1951 to 1956, when the name
"Union Carbide Nuclear Co." was adopted.
Activities on the Colorado Plateau have changed from the widespread pro-
motional boom of the early 1950's to a quieter, more productive phase of min-
ing. The efforts of small-scale Salt Wash miners have contributed much to the
growth and stability of the uranium-producing industry.
The assistance given by the officials, staffs, and lessees of Union Car-
bide Nuclear Co. is gratefully acknowledged. Special thanks are due J. F.
Emerson, manager of mines; J. R. Borden, superintendent of mines, Uravan; and
Bob Castor, chief surveyor, Uravan. Thanks also are due Dave Fulton and Ken
Presley, engineers in the company's research and development department, for
their review of this report.
GENERAL SALT WASH MINING METHODS AND COSTS
As a whole, the Salt Wash ore deposits in the Uravan, Bull Canyon, and
Gateway districts are irregular, roughly flat-lying zones containing nonuni-
formly distributed uranium-vanadium minerals. In these mineralized zones the
ore bodies occur as lenses and pods of various shapes and sizes, lying in ran-
dom arrangement and separated by irregular masses of waste or lean material.
An ore deposit may comprise a small, closely grouped cluster of ore bodies
that are extracted through one or more entries constituting the workings of
one mine, or a deposit may be extensive and may be worked through several
mines with connected workings. A deposit of the latter type trends southeast-
erly across Long Park; it is approximately 7,500 feet long and 2,000 feet wide
and is worked in some 22 mines, many of which are interconnected. The maximum
thickness of Salt Wash ore has been about 40 feet, but its average thickness
has been only about 3 feet.
Open-stope mining is used to extract Salt Wash ore. Timber cribs and
stulls are used occasionally to support the back. Much of the ore is mined
by what might be termed "drift stoping," in which irregular drifts and rooms
are driven along narrow, elongated ore pods following the ore in whatever di-
rection or inclination it takes. Here, the ore is completely extracted on the
advance, usually without the need of roof support. As new headings are turned
off along ore splits or promising ore leads, the drifts and rooms become inter-
connected, and the pattern of the mine workings is that of a large stope or
room whose back is supported by random pillars of waste. In a few mines, such
as the Hummer, where the ore bodies are more tabular and continuous in certain
areas, pillars of ore must be left, but in most Salt Wash deposits ore pillars
are unnecessary as enough islands of noncommercial material can be left in
5/ Hess, F. L., Rare Metals: Bureau of Mines Mineral Resources of the United
States, Pt. 1, 1926, p. 270.
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Dare, W. L. Uranium-Mining Practices and Costs at Ten Salt Wash Lease Operations of Union Carbide Nuclear Co., report, 1959; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc170712/m1/9/: accessed December 16, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.