A New Model of Information Architecture Associated with Multimodality For Training High Performance Professionals Side: 1 of 1
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INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL ON
CK KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
A NEW MODEL OF INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE ASSOCIATED WITH MULTIMODALITY
FOR TRAINING HIGH PERFORMANCE PROFESSIONALS
Orlandi, Tomas Roberto Cotta; Mori, Alexandre; Bernardo, Claudio Gongalves; Gottschalg-Duque, Claudio
Losada (1999) defines high performance professionals by three variables in the vision of the clients
of these teams: the profitability of the teams, customer satisfaction and the 360" evaluation that are
usually done in companies, must master a wide range of disciplines, ranging from human relationships to
the domain of enterprise risks management. To this end, we envisage the possibility of using the
multimodal information spaces, with texts, sounds and images, which can provide a set of structured
information, geared towards professional training.
Concepts Applied in the Model
For Michael Buckland (1991), the use of "Information" term denotes things regarded as
informative and varieties of "information-as-thing" can include data, text, documents, objects, and events.
This view of information includes communication, but extends beyond it. Informational storage and
retrieval systems stores necessarily "information-as-thing". The organization of knowledge, according to
Dahlberg (2006), is the science that systematically structures and organizes units of knowledge according
to the characteristics of its elements and the application of these concepts to objects and subjects.
Dahlberg (2006) defines two applications for knowledge organization: "a) the construction of conceptual
themes; and b) the correlation of units of this conceptual system with objects of reality". According to
Rosenfeld, Morville and Arango (2015), information architecture is: 1) the structural design of shared
informational environments; 2) the synthesis of organization, labeling, search and navigation systems; 3)
the art and science of shaping information products and experiences; 4) a discipline focused on bringing
principles of design and architecture on digital landscape. The purpose of Information Architecture is to
enable the effective flow of information through the design of informational environments. The Relevance
Theory of Sperber and Wilson (1995) presents an inferential approach to pragmatics, based on a definition
of relevance and two principles of relevance: a) cognitive principle, that human cognition is geared to the
maximization of relevance; b) communicative principle, that utterances create expectations of optimal
relevance. Kress and Van Leeuwen (2001) define Multimodality as the use of several semiotic modes in the
design of a semiotic product or event, or "It's the common terminology for all the semiotic data." The
multimodality concept stems from the semiotics theory, more specifically from social semiotics. Kapp
(2012) defines Gamification as the use of mechanisms, aesthetics and game thinking to engage people,
motivate actions, promote knowledge and solve problems. The User Experience - UX reaches the
individual before, during and after performing a task and is linked to the user's emotional responses to the
task or method. The UX is given by the perception of the user in a subjective aspect. In other theoretical
currents, we find UX as "usability from the point of view of the user" (Ketola and Roto 2008).
ASIST (2009) defines Information Architecture as the art, science, and business of organizing
information so that it makes sense who uses it "and the information architects" are members of the team
that choreograph the complex relationships between elements that make up an informational space.
Information Science also deals with information and with questions related to its structuring. In
Information Science, the necessary tools are found for the establishment of so-called "informational
spaces" that can be composed of large amounts of information, but with a high degree of decentralization
and fragmentation. Informational Space can be understood as a cut of an organizational information web.
To achieve its design purpose, informational space has to be able to meet the specific information needs
of individuals as well as their organizations. The informational space must generate efficient relationships
between individuals and information, in order to provide the necessary training.
The proposed Information Architecture Model
The informational aspects should be designed by an informational architect, in a structured way
to meet specific objectives of adequacy of users' needs, delimiting only the relevant and indispensable
information of a great set of information. The proposed model also seeks to implement the process of
converting tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge, addressed by Takeuchi and Nonaka (2008), as well as
by Choo (2006). Despite the great profusion of portals and training sites, there is no established "model"
of Informational Architecture applied to multimodal informational spaces towards to meet the
informational needs of high performance professionals. In this way, this work intends to address the
following research problem: How can an Informational Architecture associated to Multimodality help in
the training of high performance professional?
Model of Information Architecture supported by Multimodality
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Figure 1. Orlandi-Gottschalg-Duque Information Architecture Model
The proposed model is established in phases, like Garrett (2002, p.23), that guides the
informational architect what to consider in the construction of informational spaces, aimed at
the permanent qualification of high performance professionals.
Phase 1- Information Organization, concerns about how to organize the learning objects into an
organizational space, using concepts of classification, metadata and taxonomy, constructing
conceptual themes and correlating the objects;
Phase 2- Information Architecture Models, proposes the application of information architecture
models that deals with instructional design for allow the flow of information throughout the
multimodal informational space constructed;
Phase 3 - Relevance Theory, based on Sperber and Wilson's work (1995), to select the learning
objects that are relevant to high performance professionals. The informational architect should
chose the more relevant content according information needs.
Phase 4 - Multimodality (Kress, 2001), multimodal learning objects such as videos, audios,
presentations should be incorporated as didactic material, essential to the training of high
performance professionals, exploring the several semiotic modes.
Phase 5 - Gamification, the use of online educational learning games as means of promoting
greater engagement and arousing students' interest in the content made available in the
Phase 6 - User Experience, applying the concepts of UX, especially Nielsen's 10 general
principles for interaction design (Nielsen, 1995), known as Nielsen's heuristics to construct a
user-friendly environment for a better navigability of students.
The presented model of Information Architecture associated with Multimodality is yet in its
preliminary state. It has been applied in some recent experiments and in training courses, only of
high performance professionals. For that reason, this proposed model is yet focused in those
professionals information needs. It is a proposed model to guide the informational architect
work for planning and designing the construction of informational spaces aimed at training high
performance professionals. Nowadays, despite the great profusion of portals and training sites,
there is no established model of Information Architecture that is towards to meets the
information needs of high performance professionals. This propose may contribute for IA
ASIST (2009) The Information Society for the Information Age. http://www asis org/; Buckland, M (1991) "Information as thing" Journal of the American Society for Information Science 42:5 351-360;
Choo, C W (2006) The organization of knowledge: how organizations use information to create meaning, build knowledge and make decisions. Sao Paulo: SENAC; Dahlberg, I. (2006) "Knowledge
organization: a new science?" Knowledge Organization, Frankfurt, v.33, n.1, p. 11-19, 2006 ;Garrett, Jesse James (2002) The Elements of user Experience: User-centered design for the Web Aiga: New
York, NY e New Riders: Berkeley, CA.; Kapp, K M (2012) The gamification of learning and instruction: game-based methods and strategies for training and education. San Francisco: Pfeiffer; Ketola, P,
Roto, V. (2008) "Exploring User Experience Measurement Needs" 5th COST294-MAUSE Open Workshop on Valid Useful User Experience Measurement (VUUM). Reykjavik, Iceland; Kress G., Van
Leeuwen (2001) Multimodal discourse: the modes and media of contemporary communication London: Hodder Arnold Publication; Losada, M. (1999) "The complex dynamics of high performance teams"
Journal Mathematical and Computer Modelling, v 30; Nielsen, J. (1995), "10 Usability Heuristics for User Interface Design". www nngroup com/articles/ten-usability-heuristics; Rosenfeld L.; Morville P;
Arango J. (2015). Information Architecture: For the Web and Beyond O'Reilly Media Inc., CA; Sperber, D. and Wilson, D. (1995) Relevance: communication and cognition. 2 ed. Oxford: Blackwell;
Takeuchi. H.: Nonaka. I. (2008) Knowledge Manaoement. Porto Alegre: Bookman
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Roberto Cotta Orlandi, Tomás; Mori, Alexandre; Bernardo, Claudio & Gottschalg-Duque, Cláudio. A New Model of Information Architecture Associated with Multimodality For Training High Performance Professionals, poster, November 9, 2018; (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1616569/m1/1/: accessed July 24, 2021), University of North Texas Libraries, UNT Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT College of Information.