Production of radishes. Page: 4
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4 LEAFLET 157, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Harvesting and Handling
Spring and summer radishes are pulled when they reach a suitable
size, tied usually 6 to 12 in a bunch, washed, and packed in
hampers, baskets, or crates for handling.
The United States standards for bunched radishes provide that
unless otherwise specified, U. S. Grade No. 1 shall be at least fiveeighths
of an inch in diameter, that the bunches shall be of fairly uniform
size, and that the radishes in the individual bunches shall not
vary more than one-quarter of an inch in diameter. Certain allowances
are made for slight variations. Complete information in regard
to these standards may be obtained from the Bureau of Agricultural
Economics, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington,
A wide variety of shipping packages is used in different sections.
It should be borne in mind that the sizes of certain baskets and hampers
must conform to the standards set by the Standard Containers
Act. When shipped in carload lots, radishes are usually handled
under refrigeration, and ice is frequently placed on top of the load
in addition to the ice in the bunkers. Snow ice is also placed within
the packages when the radishes are to be shipped long distances.
Radishes are forced in coldframes, flue
and pipe-heated hotbeds,
sash greenhouses, and standard sash-bar and glass forcing structures.
Owing to the hardiness of the radish, it may be successfully grown in
inexpensive forcing structures with comparatively small expenditures
for fuel. In sections where mild winters prevail, a glass or clothcovered
cold frame usually gives all the protection needed. In more
northerly sections a flue
or pipe-heated hotbed or sash greenhouse
may be used to grow radishes during early spring and sometimes in
late autumn. The standard greenhouse with a heating plant that is
capable of maintaining suitable temperatures irrespective of weather
conditions may be used for forcing radishes at any time during the
winter. Radishes are usually grown in this type of greenhouse chiefly
as an intercrop with lettuce, cauliflower, or some other cool crop,
because they need only a few weeks to develop and are usually out of
the way before the entire space is needed by the companion crop.
Methods followed in forcing radishes are very similar to those employed
in their outdoor culture. The time of planting is determined
by the location, the kind of forcing structure available, and the season,
because the culture of radishes in forcing structures is impracticable
during summer months. The quick-maturing globe-shaped varieties,
such as Early Scarlet Globe and Rosy Gem, are almost invariably used.
These sorts will give a crop of marketable-size radishes about a month
The maintenance in the forcing structure of day temperatures of
about 55 to 60 F. and night temperatures some 10 lower will give
On the whole the forcing of radishes is comparatively simple, but
there is a limited demand for the product at prices that will yield a
profit above the cost of production. During recent years the competition
of outdoor-grown radishes from the South often makes it impossible
to force them profitably.
U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1938
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C.
Price 5 cents
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Beattie, James H. (James Herbert), b. 1882. & Beattie, W. R. (William Renwick), b. 1870. Production of radishes., book, March 1938; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1562/m1/4/: accessed February 25, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.