Barberry eradication in stem rust control: wheat, oats, barley, rye. Page: 2
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IN STEM RUST CONTROL
Certain species of barberry
spread stem rust-a disease of
wheat, oats, barley, and rye. Federal,
State, and local agencies in 19
States are cooperating in a program
to eradicate these rust-spreading
Stem rust is a fungus disease that
costs us millions of dollars each
year. It has reduced grain yields
by 200 million bushels in a single
season. Damage from stem rust
occurs in some areas every year.
Rust, growing on green stems
and leaves, uses water and food
needed by the plant to develop
grain kernels. The kernels from
rusted plants are badly shriveled.
Some become light and chaffy;
others fail to develop to normal size.
Rusted stems turn grayish brown,
become dry and brittle, and often
Stem rust appears as pustules, or
blisters, that break through the surface
of plant stems, leaves, and
sheaths after 7 to 10 days of development.
The pustules develop in
warm, moist weather. A single
pustule may produce 350,000 spores.
A pustule produces two kinds of
spores-red spores, whicl are summer
rust, and black spores, which
are winter rust.
The red spores develop on the
growing grain and grass plants and
are carried by the wind to other
young plants. There they may
germinate in an hour in warm,
humid weather. The fungus grows
and the spores spread rapidly from
plant to plant and from field to field
until harvesttime if temperature
and moisture conditions remain favorable.
Winter Rust and the Barberry
Thick-walled black spores, produced
on the maturing grain, are
not blown about by the wind, but
remain on stubble, straw, and wild
grasses through the winter. These
spores germinate in early spring
and infect barberry bushes.
After a week or 10 days, cuplike
growths develop from the fungus
This leaflet explains how barberry bushes spread stem rust and how
to identify the rust-spreading species. Learn to identify these species
and you can help in the stem rust control program. Report the location
of rust-spreading barberry bushes to your county agricultural
Here’s what’s next.
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United States. Plant Pest Control Division. Barberry eradication in stem rust control: wheat, oats, barley, rye., book, December 1957; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1549/m1/2/: accessed August 21, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.