Varieties of club wheat. Page: 1
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VARIETIES OF CLUB WHEATL
By J. ALLEN C(LARK, senior a!froLnomist. a111 I. B.. BAYLES, associate agronomisnt,
Division of Cereal Crops and Diseases, Bureau of Plant Industry
2 Group 3.-Heads beardless; chaff smooth,
... -. --
3 brown or red; kernels white----------
Group 1.-hIeads beardless; chaff smooth, Group 4.-Heads beardless; chaff velvety,
white or yellow; kernels white
4 white or yellow; kernels red -------.
Group 2.-Heads beardless; chaff smooth, Group 5.-Heads bearded; chaff smooth.
white or yellow; kernels red ,---..
8 brown or red; kernels red-----------
T HE CLUB WVHEATS have short, thick, and very compact
heads and small kernels. Because of these distinctive characters,
they usually are placed in a different division or so-called subspecies
(Triticum sativum compactwinz) from the common bread
wheats (T. sativum vu7gare). About 725,000 acres, or 1.2 percent
of the wheat acreage of the United States, are annually devoted to
the production of club wheats. There are 12 distinct varieties commercially
grown; 3 of these have red kernels. Some are grown
from both spring and fall sowing, others only from fall sowing.
The grain of most of the varieties is soft and inferior to that of other
classes of American wheats for making light bread. Club wheats
are largely exported to western Europe and the Orient. Flour made
from club wheats in the United States is used largely for biscuits
Under the official grain standards of the United States the whitekerneled
varieties are graded in the subclass (c) western white of
the class V white wheat, and the red-kerneled varieties in the subclass
(b) western red of the class IV soft red winter wheat.
Not all so-called club wheats are true club varieties. Varieties
of common wheat having clavate, or club-shaped, heads (widest at
the tip) are sometimes erroneously called club wheats. The heads of
most varieties of the true club wheat are not club-shaped but are more
or less oblong, that is, as wide at the bottom as at the top.
Surprise, known also as California Club, California Gem, Golden
Gate Club, Imperial Club, Silver Club, or Smith Club, and Dicklow
1 The information in this bulletin is based upon (1) varietal experiments conducted by
the Division of Cereal Crops and Diseases, Bureau of Plant Industry, U.S. Department of
Agriculture, in cooperation with State agricultural experiment stations; (2) classification
studies of all American wheat varieties; (3) a survey of the wheat varieties of the
United States, in cooperation with the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, based upon
about 10,000 returns from 74.000 questionnaires sent to crop correspondents; and (4) personal
observations for several years by the riters in the wheat fields in the States where
these varieties are grown.
2054!)1 -40 1
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Clark, J. Allen (Jacob Allen), b. 1888. & Bayles, B. B. (Burton Bernard), 1900-. Varieties of club wheat., book, 1940; Washington D.C.. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1510/m1/3/?rotate=90: accessed April 22, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.