Surface Machinery and Methods for Oil-Well Pumping Page: 119
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MISCELLANEOUS OPERATING EQUIPMENT AND PRACTICE. 119
No workman shall be required to enter any tank or other container provided
only with manholes in the top, excepting earthen and concrete lined reservoirs,
until he has been supplied with a rope which shall be made fast to his body
and to a substantial support on the outside of the tank or other container.
The rope must be of sufficient length to reach from the outside support to any
point of work in the tank or container, and shall be of sufficient strength to
bear the weight of the workman.
All work in any confined space when atmospheric conditions are nauseating,
or in any way cause indisposition on the part of the workmen, shall be arranged
in short shifts, the men on the outside alternating to relieve those inside.
CONTROL OF STATIC ELECTRICITY.
Metallic parts of containers and conductors of inflammable liquids shall be in
electrical contact and connected to ground in such manner as will prevent
development of static electric sparks.
TANKS, PONDS, AND RESERVOIRS.
Tanks, reservoirs, and ponds for the storage of oil have been
discussed in Bureau of Mines publications.21
At pumping wells the oil is run into tanks made of wood or steel,
or into concrete reservoirs. In some fields dams are built across
small valleys or depressions for the purpose of impounding and
recovering oil that may be lost from wells, pipe lines, or tanks and
escape into the drainage of the area. Much oil is often recovered
in this way. In some fields oil seepage or loss into streams also
must be prevented, because, as in California, the water of the streams
is used for irrigation. At other oil fields the building of dams and
the construction of ponds are necessary to provide storage for oil
from new wells with a large production when enough tankage is not
immediately available or where pipe lines have not yet been laid.
Wooden tanks are generally made with white pine, Louisiana
cypress, or California redwood staves, white pine bottoms, and steel
or wrought-iron hoops.
Steel tanks are of three general classes--steel riveted, corrugated
steel, and bolted steel. The smaller sizes of steel tanks are generally
bolted or corrugated. The former type is most common in the Mid-
Continent and eastern oil fields, and the latter in the California
fields. The bolted-steel tank is easily erected without the use of
skilled labor, and is readily taken down and moved from place to
place. The bolts and nuts holding the plates together are on the out-
side of the tank and can be readily tightened if a leak develops.
21 Bowie, C. P., Oil-storage tanks and reservoirs, with a brief discussion of losses of oil
in storage and methods of prevention : Bull. 155, Bureau of Mines, 1917, 73 pp.; Wiggins,
J. H., Evaporation losses of petroleum in the Mid-Continent field: Bull. 200, Bureau of
Mines, 1922, 115 pp.
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George, H. C. Surface Machinery and Methods for Oil-Well Pumping, report, 1925; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12407/m1/154/: accessed December 18, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.