Surface Machinery and Methods for Oil-Well Pumping Page: 104
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104 SURFACE MACHINERY AND METHODS FOR OIL-WELL PUMPING.
is usually the drive pulley, decreases effective tension. Introducing
a jack shaft under these conditions materially increases effective
tension. With motor drive the presence of such a shaft is essential
unless a speed-reduction gear is used.
The following data are given by many belt-manufacturing compa-
nies as to the minimum sizes of pulleys that should be used with the
various plies of belts made of regular heavy duck: For four ply, 18
inches; for five ply, 24 inches; for six ply, 30 inches; for seven ply,
36 inches; for eight ply, 48 inches; for ten ply, 60 inches. Light
duck belt requires for five-ply belt, 6-inch pulleys and smaller, and
for seven-ply, 6-inch pulleys and larger.
All oil-field derricks were of lumber until recently. When the
drilling derrick was removed or destroyed it was replaced with a 40
or 60 foot wooden derrick for pulling rods and tubing. This practice
holds in many oil fields, especially where the wells are pumped on the
beam. In other oil fields, such as those in the heavily wooded areas
of Pennsylvania where forest fires often destroyed derricks, tanks,
and buildings, years ago derricks were replaced by poles 40 or 50
feet long held in place by guy wires. In other fields under similar
conditions, three poles bolted together at the top and with a clevis
for attaching a block have been used as crude derricks to pull rods
or tubing in shallow wells. In the oil fields of Ohio, Indiana, Illi-
nois, and in some of the Mid-Continent fields, the practice for years
has been to carry a mast or gin pole from well to well as a part of
the pulling equipment. (P1. XXVI, A.) In most of these oil fields
few derricks are seen, except at new wells. The practice is most
common in the shallower oil fields where the jack plant or " power "
system of pumping has been used for years.
An ordinary type of wooden derrick used at wells pumping on the
beam is shown in Plate XXVII, A. A wooden derrick, unless it is
bolted, or has timber legs and girts held in place by bolted steel
plates and turnbuckle braces, will not average more than 50 per
cent salvage when torn down. Bolted wooden derricks are made of
seasoned wood. The parts are fastened together by bolts in iron
corner-pieces. No nails are used. They are easily movable and can
be quickly put up or taken down.
Steel has been used as a substitute for wood in many places, and
derricks may now be obtained in which the proportion of steel and
wood varies to suit local conditions. Plate XXVI, B, shows a der-
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George, H. C. Surface Machinery and Methods for Oil-Well Pumping, report, 1925; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12407/m1/133/: accessed April 30, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.