Surface Machinery and Methods for Oil-Well Pumping Page: 89
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and after passing around a groove in the bearing iron k is attached
to the bolt coupling at the lower end of k.
The polish rod is held in a vertical position by means of a steel
fulcrum-rod, m, about 10 feet long, which is attached at one end to
the polish-rod connection f, and at the other end, by means of a bolt
and eye, to a 4 by 4 inch or 6 by 6 inch post, n, which is firmly
cemented and braced in position. This post n is so placed that the
fulcrum rod m and the shackle line are in alignment in a vertical
plane. By means of the turnbuckle g on the shackle line the ex-
pansion and contraction of the line is adjusted, as is the length of
the stroke imparted to the polish rod. The greater the interior angle
between the lower members a and b and the upper member c, the
shorter will be the vertical stroke imparted to the polish rod by a
given length of stroke of the shackle line.
Plate XXIV (p. 77) shows a heavy balanced beam used with the
Oklahoma type of jack; it is suitable for pumping deep wells with a
power or a jack plant. The balanced beam helps to decrease the load
at the well. Additional weight can be suspended at a on the beam if
the well pulls exceptionally hard. The shackle-line attachments
are shown at b and the turnbuckle and attachments at c.
If the probable life of a well warrants the expenditure, concrete
foundations for the jack will give more rigidity and maintain align-
ment better, thus decreasing wear and the need for repairs and in-
creasing the efficiency.
In some oil fields pumping wheels are used at the wells instead of
jacks to convert the horizontal motion of the shackle line to the ver-
tical motion of the rods. Where the shackle lines are steel cables,
a large wooden wheel as shown in Plate IX, B, at b (p. 45) is gen-
erally used. Where the shackle lines are steel rods a derrick crown-
pulley is used for the wheel at some wells, and a section of chain is
inserted in the part of the shackle line that passes over the wheel.
Some production foremen claim that wheels pull easier than jacks
and that, since the pull is always from a point on the circumference
of the wheel, the polish rod at the well always reciprocates in a ver-
tical line; and, further, that a long stroke can be used in pumping
when conditions warrant, without pulling the polish rod out of its
vertical position. Many types of long-arm jacks, however, and some
types of short-arm jacks, having an are or double-coupling attach-
ment for holding the polish rod, also keep the polish rod in a vertical
position at all points of the stroke and are designed for long-stroke
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George, H. C. Surface Machinery and Methods for Oil-Well Pumping, report, 1925; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12407/m1/118/: accessed July 24, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.