Surface Machinery and Methods for Oil-Well Pumping Page: 86
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86 SURFACE MACHINERY AND METHODS FOR OIL-WELL PUMPING.
blocks or a fence jack, after the broken rod has been repaired or re-
placed by a new one. When a shackle line breaks it is sometimes
detached from the power, pulled together by hand, repaired, and
then brought to its former position by repeatedly using the throw-off
at the power with rods and hooks of decreasing length until the line
is pulled up to its former position. This, of course, is done while the
power is in motion.
POWER-TRANSMITTING EQUIPMENT AT THE WELL.
Pumping jacks and pumping wheels are used at wells to convert
the horizontal reciprocating motion of the shackle line to the vertical
reciprocating motion of the polish rod and its attached sucker rods
and plunger pump in the well.
Jacks are made of timber, structural steel, pipe, or combinations
of these materials. They are of two general classes; the direct pull
or Pennsylvania type, and the indirect pull, or Oklahoma type.
Various trade names designate different models of these two types
as manufactured by oil-well supply companies, but all types, with
variations of set-up and details of construction, belong to one of
these two types.
Plate XXIII, A, shows a Pennsylvania type of jack built of pipe
and castings held in alignment by back supports, a, made of steel
rods with turnbuckles to permit necessary adjustments. When these
back braces are diagonally crossed they occupy less space and align-
ment can be more readily made by the turnbuckles. The support-
ing legs b rest in holes cut in a buried piece of casing laid trans-
versely to the direction of pull. These legs are inclined so that they
also serve as front braces and, with tension on the shackle line c,
hold the jack in proper position.
This jack is strongly made and is well suited to heavy duty and
long stroke, the normal length of stroke being 28 inches. The polish
rod is kept in a vertical position with this length of stroke by means
of an arm, d, the end of which comes in contact with the side of the
polish-rod clamp e when the upward stroke is about half completed
and remains in contact until the downward stroke is about half
completed. The polish-rod clamp and bearing e has two pieces of
steel bolted on its sides, by means of which it is attached to the
bearing on the end of the work arm of the jack at f. In the Illinois
oil fields this type of jack is used at wells that produce much water.
For transmitting a long stroke a short-arm jack of the Pennsyl-
vania type should have some device to keep the polish rod in a
vertical plane and thus prevent the wear causing leaks at the stuff-
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George, H. C. Surface Machinery and Methods for Oil-Well Pumping, report, 1925; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12407/m1/115/: accessed March 30, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.