Surface Machinery and Methods for Oil-Well Pumping Page: 83
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ment for the shackle line leading to the well and the attachment for
the shackle line leading to the power. When they increase the stroke
these devices are known as multipliers, and when they decrease it
they are known as reducers.
The pendulum as used for a hold-up, or hold-down, or multiplier,
Figure 11, D (p. 80), is attached by suitable bearings to vertical
side posts, the lower ends of which are set in the ground, or are
bolted or framed to buried sills that may be set in concrete when
heavy loads are to be handled.
The rocker, Figure 11, F, as used for the same purposes, is attached
by suitable bearings to sills bolted or framed together and generally
placed with their tops flush with the surface of the ground. When
used for heavy loads the sills are often set in concrete. Plate XXI, C,
(p. 76) shows three rockers at b, c, and d; the two former are used
to increase the length of stroke at the well, and the last is used to
decrease the stroke. The power is situated to the left of the photo-
graph. As these rockers are near the power they also hold the
shackle lines horizontal when leaving the power.
EQUIPMENT TO CHANGE DIRECTION OF SHACKLE LINE VERTICALLY.
Devices located near the power to change the direction of a shackle
line in a vertical plane are known as " hold-ups " if the shackle line
leads to a lower level, and as "hold-downs " if the line leads to a
higher level. However, if the shackle line crosses a series of gullies
and ridges, hold-ups are put on top of the ridges and hold-downs in
the bottom of the gullies. If the shackle line is stretched from ridge
to ridge without any intervening support, the sag in the line takes up
any stroke imparted by the power and there iS no appreciable
reciprocating movement at the well. Plate XXII, A (p. 77), shows
a butterfly type of pendulum used as a hold-down because of the
sharp angle between the two shackle lines.
Hold-ups are generally of the pendulum, rocker, roller, and wheel
types; hold-downs are generally of the pendulum and rocker types.
Figure 11, F (p. 80), shows a rocker. When the solid lines
y and y' represent shackle lines, it is used as a hold-up; when the
broken lines x and x' represent shackle lines, it is used as a hold-
down; and when the broken lines z and z' represent shackle lines
it is used as a multiplier.
Figure 11, D, shows a pendulum used as a multiplier. By varia-
tions in its position and in the attachment of shackle lines, it can be
used as a hold-up or a hold-down, in the same way as a rocker. Fig-
ure 11, G, shows a roller, generally a casing coupling placed hori-
zontally in a concrete or plank box firmly attached to a foundation,
used as a hold-up. Under the reciprocating motion of the shackle
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George, H. C. Surface Machinery and Methods for Oil-Well Pumping, report, 1925; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12407/m1/112/: accessed August 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.