Surface Machinery and Methods for Oil-Well Pumping Page: 82
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82 SURFACE MACHINERY AND METHODS FOR OIL-WELL PUMPING.
PULL-ROD POSTS OR FRICTION-POST SUPPORTS.
Friction-post supports are made by driving wooden posts into the
ground at intervals of 20 feet to 30 feet; the pull line or shackle line
rests on the tops of the posts where it is held in place by a notch
or groove. These supports are also made by cutting old pipe,
usually 2 inch, into suitable lengths and driving these into the
ground by the use of a sledge and a steel drivehead for the pipe.
This drivehead slightly spreads the upper end of the pipe so that
a piece of hard wood is readily inserted into the top of the pipe
after it has been driven to the proper position. The piece of wood,
usually oak and known as a " doll head," has its upper surface
grooved to carry the pull rod and has a 2-inch shank. The latter type
is shown in Figure 11, E (p. 80) ; Plate XVIII, B, at a (p. 77) ; Plate
XIX, A, at a (p. 76); and Plate XXII, C, at b (p. 77). Other
carriers to be inserted in the top of the pipe support have a
sheave that carries the shackle line and rotates with the reciprocat-
ing motion of the shackle line. If wooden blocks are used for sup-
port, they should be kept well greased; otherwise the friction will
increase the power requirements and, in long shackle lines, greatly
reduce the length of stroke at the well. The superintendent of a
Gulf Coast oil company stated that in his experience ungreased posts
made wells pull practically twice as hard, thus greatly increasing
breakage of shackle-line rods, and, on many long lines an 18-inch
stroke imparted to a shackle line at the power produced only an 8-
inch stroke at the end of the line. This type of support is most
common in level country-as in parts of Wyoming, Kansas, Okla-
homa, and Illinois.
Friction-post or pull-rod supports, made of old pipe, are generally
unsatisfactory if they extend more than 4 feet above the surface
of the ground, because they tend to become loose when higher. They
are most satisfactory when not more than 2 feet high. They should
be set about 3 feet in the ground for support, and hence can not be-
satisfactorily placed where there is much rock or gravel in the soil.
In places where the ground freezes deep they may work loose when
the ground thaws.
When the shackle line crosses gullies or low places, the pull-rod
posts should be replaced and the shackle line supported by a well-
braced or concreted two-post pendulum or a tripod pendulum.
EQUIPMENT TO CHANGE THE LENGTH OF STROKE.
Pendulums and rockers are sometimes used to make the length of
stroke at the well differ from that imparted to the shackle line at
the power. The length of stroke is increased or decreased by increas-
ing or decreasing the distance between the fulcrum of the attach-
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George, H. C. Surface Machinery and Methods for Oil-Well Pumping, report, 1925; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12407/m1/111/: accessed March 28, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.