Insights Into the Factors Influencing Student Motivation in Augmented Reality Learning Experiences in Vocational Education and Training Page: 4
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Motivational Factors in Augmented Reality
TABLE 2 1 Studies that report variables that might impact on student motivation.
Ferrer et al., 2013
Huang and Liaw, 2014
Chen and Liao, 2015
Chen and Wang, 2015
Gopalan et al., 2016
Variable - predictor (feature, aspect, trait, etc.)
Immersion and interaction
Type of AR content (static and dynamic)
Type of guiding strategies (procedure-guided or
Ease of use
Impact on student motivation
Despite the usability issues in mobile AR, student motivation can be improved.
Immersion and interactivity features are predictors of student motivation, but
immersion is a stronger predictor.
Learners in the static-AR and the procedure-guided strategy outperformed
those learners in the dynamic-AR and the question-guided strategy in the
dimension of intrinsic goal orientation
Learning styles do not affect learning motivation in mobile AR instruction.
Engagement, Enjoyment and Fun were significant predictors of student
Ease of use was not a predictor of motivation.
chemical products and/or tools to repair the paint. The steps
must be done in a fixed order with respect to the other steps and
only when all the steps in a phase are completed, that phase is
completed and the next phase can start. In that regard, students
need to learn how to perform each task (step in the process)
and need to learn which are the chemical products and tools
they need to use for each step in the process. Learning how to
do this requires a considerable amount of time and combines
theoretical and hands-on activities with chemical products and
The Paint-cAR application was developed by the authors
and is the result of a co-creation process, as described in the
work by Bacca et al. (2015), in which VET teachers, software
developers, and educational technology experts participated.
Using the application, students learn about the chemical products
and tools they need to use for each step of the paint repairing
process. The application was developed with the following
modules: a Scaffolding Module, a Real-time feedback Module, an
Assessment Module, the AR Module, and a Monitoring Module.
Furthermore, a booklet containing the AR markers that the
application recognizes was given to students so that they can also
use the application at home.
By using the application, students are guided through the
process of repairing paint on a car step-by-step. For each
one of the 30 steps, students must complete three activities
that were designed by the VET teachers: (1) Watch a video that
explains how experts go through the repairing process in that
step. (2) Answer five multiple-choice questions about that step.
(3) Identify the chemical products and/or tools they need to use
for that step in the process. This last activity includes a mobile AR
experience in which students need to move around the classroom
(usually a workshop) and scan AR markers that are stuck to the
tools and chemical products they need to use for that step in
the process. The application recognizes if the product or tool is
appropriate for a particular step in the process by identifying an
ID associated to each marker.
In the AR experience, by using the Scaffolding Module
students can ask the application for help at any time to obtain
hints and information to help them to find the appropriate
tools and chemical products in the workshop. The Real-time
feedback Module provides feedback to students when they scan
the markers stuck to the chemical products and tools so that
students can reflect on their choices, successes and mistakes.
The augmented information shown for each product and tool
includes the characteristics of the product, the safety measures
required when using it and its technical datasheet. Finally, the
Monitoring Module captures students' interaction with all the
other modules. Figure 1 shows a screenshot of the Paint-cAR
application in the AR mode.
Frontiers in Psychology I www.frontiersin.org
FIGURE 1 1 A screenshot of the Paint-cAR application in the AR mode.
Bacca et al.
August 2018 1 Volume 9 1 Article 1486
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Bacca, Jorge; Baldiris, Silvia; Fabregat, Ramon & Kinshuk. Insights Into the Factors Influencing Student Motivation in Augmented Reality Learning Experiences in Vocational Education and Training, article, August 21, 2018; Lausanne, Switzerland. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1234368/m1/4/: accessed March 21, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT College of Information.