Insights Into the Factors Influencing Student Motivation in Augmented Reality Learning Experiences in Vocational Education and Training Page: 2
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Motivational Factors in Augmented Reality
which are the components of AR applications that may contribute
to increase student motivation and does not explain how and
why motivation is increased. Thus, further research is needed
on student motivation to have a better understanding of the
advantages of AR in education (Akqayir and Akqayir, 2017).
Consequently, this study aims to provide some insights
into the components of AR applications that increase student
motivation to contribute to the design and development of AR
applications that effectively increase motivation (that we call
motivational mobile ARLEs). In this paper we focused on mobile
ARLEs and the research questions that drive this study are:
(1) Which are the components of mobile AR applications that
positively affect student motivation?
(2) How these components affect the dimensions of student
We hypothesize that identifying the components of mobile AR
applications that increase student motivation might contribute
to inform the design and development of AR applications that
effectively support student motivation.
To identify the components of a mobile AR application
that increase student motivation, a research model constructed
from the literature was empirically validated with data obtained
from two sources: 35 students from four Vocational Education
and Training (VET) institutes interacting with a mobile AR
application called Paint-cAR' for learning for a period of 20 days;
and a self-report measure obtained from the Instructional
Materials Motivation Survey (IMMS). The Paint-cAR application
is a mobile AR application that was co-created with teachers,
software developers and educational technology experts (Bacca,
2017). The Paint-cAR application is intended for teaching
students about the process of repairing paint on a car which is one
of the topics in the VET program of Car Maintenance. The Paint-
cAR application was co-created with a Monitoring Module that
automatically collects data about the interaction of students with
the following modules of the application: a Scaffolding Module, a
Real-time feedback Module, an Assessment Module and the AR
Although AR technology has spread to almost all educational
levels, and despite of the fact that AR has been extensively used
for industrial maintenance, repair and assembly tasks (Lamberti
et al., 2014; Bacca et al., 2015), there is still a lack of research
exploring the benefits of this technology for VET education
(Bacca et al., 2015). Consequently, we focus on this educational
level to identify which are the components of a mobile AR
application that might positively affect student motivation. On
this educational level, motivational aspects are relevant for
learning not only in the classroom, but also in the workplace
(Schaap et al., 2012).
The contributions of this study are twofold: first, this study
identifies some components of mobile AR applications that
might positively affect student motivation in the VET level of
education and second, this study presents the implications of
these components and their associated variables on the design
and development of motivational ARLEs.
This paper is organized as follows. After the introduction,
the theoretical background that frames this paper is described
followed by the related work. Then, the mobile AR application
used in this study is described. The hypotheses development is
then presented followed by the method. Then, hypotheses testing
and results are presented followed by the implications of the study
for the design and development of motivational mobile ARLEs
and finally the limitations of this study are described.
Augmented Reality and Mobile
The concept of AR was coined in contexts of training and
maintenance when Caudell and Mizell (1992) introduced a
Head-mounted display for assisting maintenance in the aircraft
industry. Later, AR was defined as a technology that "allows the
user to see the real world, with virtual objects superimposed upon
or composited with the real world" (Azuma, 1997). Based on this
definition and based on the definitions suggested by Dunleavy
et al. (2009); Cuendet et al. (2013); Furi6 et al. (2013); Wu et al.
(2013), we define AR as a technology that allows combining or
annotating the real-time view of the physical world with any
type of digital content generated by a computer or by a mobile
Kourouthanassis et al. (2015) defines Mobile Augmented
Reality (MAR) as the systems that provide AR capabilities
through mobile devices such as smartphones or tablets and
differentiates MAR from the first generation of AR that is defined
as Desktop Augmented Reality (DAR). In this paper we focus on
MAR and marker-based AR.
Motivation and the ARCS Model of
Motivation is a human dimension that explains why people make
an effort to pursue a goal and why people actively work to
attain that goal (Keller, 2010). While there are many models
that study human motivation, one that explains this concept in
relation to learning processes is the ARCS (Attention, Relevance,
Confidence, and Satisfaction) model introduced by Keller (1987).
The attention dimension refers to the interest of learners and
their curiosity in the learning process. The relevance dimension
refers to the learning process meeting the student's learning
needs and is related to the student's perception on how the
learning process is aligned with their own interests and goals. The
confidence dimension relates to the opportunities that learners
have to succeed in the learning activities. Finally, the satisfaction
dimension is related to the feeling of success being reinforced and
a sense of satisfaction with the results obtained in the learning
process. The ARCS model has been used in previous studies that
explore student motivation in ARLEs such as those conducted by
Chin et al. (2015) and Chen et al. (2016).
In this paper, we draw on the ARCS model to represent
student motivation in ARLEs with the aim to identify which is the
components of ARLEs that positively affect student motivation.
Frontiers in Psychology I www.frontiersin.org
Bacca et al.
August 2018 1 Volume 9 1 Article 1486
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Bacca, Jorge; Baldiris, Silvia; Fabregat, Ramon & Kinshuk. Insights Into the Factors Influencing Student Motivation in Augmented Reality Learning Experiences in Vocational Education and Training, article, August 21, 2018; Lausanne, Switzerland. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1234368/m1/2/: accessed March 18, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT College of Information.