Insights Into the Factors Influencing Student Motivation in Augmented Reality Learning Experiences in Vocational Education and Training Page: 1
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published: 21 August 2018
Politecnico di Milano, Italy
Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain
Universidad Europea de Valencia,
jorge.bacca@konradlorenz. edu. co
This article was submitted to
a section of the journal
Frontiers in Psychology
Received: 09 May 2018
Accepted: 27 July 2018
Published: 21 August 2018
Bacca J, Baldiris S, Fabregat R and
Kinshuk (2018) Insights Into
the Factors Influencing Student
Motivation in Augmented Reality
Learning Experiences in Vocational
Education and Training.
Front. Psychol. 9:1486.
doi: 10.3389/fpsyg. 2018.01486
Insights Into the Factors Influencing
Student Motivation in Augmented
Reality Learning Experiences in
Vocational Education and Training
Jorge Baccal*, Silvia Baldiris23, Ramon Fabregat1 and Kinshuk4
Institute of Informatics and Applications, University of Girona, Girona, Spain, 2 Direction of Research, Innovation and Social
Projection, Fundacion Universitaria Tecnologico Comfenalco, Cartagena, Colombia, 3 Universidad Internacional de la Rioja,
Logrono, Spain,4 College of Information, University of North Texas, Denton, TX, United States
Research on Augmented Reality (AR) in education has demonstrated that AR
applications designed with diverse components boost student motivation in educational
settings. However, most of the research conducted to date, does not define exactly
what those components are and how these components positively affect student
motivation. This study, therefore, attempts to identify some of the components that
positively affect student motivation in mobile AR learning experiences to contribute to
the design and development of motivational AR learning experiences for the Vocational
Education and Training (VET) level of education. To identify these components, a
research model constructed from the literature was empirically validated with data
obtained from two sources: 35 students from four VET institutes interacting with an
AR application for learning for a period of 20 days, and a self-report measure obtained
from the Instructional Materials Motivation Survey (IMMS). We found that the following
variables: use of scaffolding, real-time feedback, degree of success, time on-task and
learning outcomes are positively correlated with the four dimensions of the ARCS model
of motivation: Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction. Implications of these
results are also described.
Keywords: augmented reality, ARCS, learning experiences, motivation, vocational education and training
Augmented Reality (AR) is rapidly evolving (Kim et al., 2016) as is research on AR in education
(Santos et al., 2014; Saidin et al., 2015). The increasing interest in using AR in education has led
to the creation of AR learning experiences (ARLEs), i.e., learning experiences supported by AR
(Santos et al., 2014) and many ARLEs have been created for almost all levels of education from
early childhood education through to higher education. Consequently, the many advantages of and
limitations to, challenges and opportunities for this technology in education have been reported in
the literature. Two of the most relevant advantages of AR applications in education are: increased
learning outcomes and increased motivation (Chiang et al., 2014; Radu, 2014). Therefore, if AR
applications boost student motivation, the AR applications have been designed with components
that positively affect student motivation when students interact with these components during an
ARLE. However, most of the research into student motivation in ARLE does not clearly identify
Frontiers in Psychology I www.frontiersin.org
August 2018 1 Volume 9 1 Article 1486
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Bacca, Jorge; Baldiris, Silvia; Fabregat, Ramon & Kinshuk. Insights Into the Factors Influencing Student Motivation in Augmented Reality Learning Experiences in Vocational Education and Training, article, August 21, 2018; Lausanne, Switzerland. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1234368/m1/1/: accessed March 19, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT College of Information.