Cross-Cultural Training and Success Versus Failure of Expatriates Page: 48
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Cross-Cultural Training and Success Versus Failure of Expatriates
Globalization largely affects corporate culture and the employees therein. With the onset
of economic globalization the onset of cross-cultural training (CCT) and expatriate training came
about. During the 1960s and 70s, cross-cultural research examined multiple-cultural phenomena
such as expatriate employment, differences in national cultures and relationship between culture
and motivation, among others (Littrell & Salas, 2005). As research advanced in cross-cultural
training, the 1980s and 90s saw an upsurge in the amount of research space accorded to cross-
cultural research. And one major catalyst that brought about the change was the increasing
globalization of the economy.
There are a number of studies that support the effectiveness of CCT (Black &
Mendenhall, 1990; Osman-Gani & Rockstuhl, 2009). There has been an upswing in terms of
emphasis on cross-cultural research despite the fact that researchers have not been able to put
research advances into practice. There has been controversy and an unending debate on the
goals, effectiveness, implementation and processes of CCT (Baumgarten, 1995; Brewster, 1995;
Selmer, 2001). There are very few reviews that have condensed literature detailing the best
practices of CCT (Littrell & Salas, 2005; Littrell, Salas, Hess, Paley, & Riedel, 2006). This
review attempts to condense the literature available to support both points of view and to find a
probable gap in literature for further research. The researcher reviewed the period after the 1980s
as the term 'globalization' became popular in that era with economists using it.
For the purpose of this article, the terms 'expatriates' and 'CCT' need to be defined
specifically. Expatriates are defined as individuals who relocate from one country to the other for
at least one year (Littrell et al., 2006). CCT is defined as 'the educative processes used to
improve intercultural learning via the development of the cognitive, affective, and behavioral
competencies needed for successful interactions in diverse cultures' (Landis & Brislin, 1996;
Morris & Robie, 2001; Littrell et al., 2006). In the past decade numerous studies evaluated the
effectiveness of CCT. That led many researchers to study success versus failure of CCT. Studies
have supported both points of view (Deshpande, 1992; Kealey & Protheroe, 1996). This review
is significant because it does not just look at the larger picture, but it also explores the finer
details of the various factors affecting the success and failure and definitions of the terms in
context of the expatriate and the organization at large. This review is also important because it
attempts to answer how success in CCT training is measured and to reveal the factors that play a
role in the evaluation of success and failure. This review is imperative because few research
studies have collated information about the same, or even researched about the same.
Four major research questions will be answered in this review
1. How is success in CCT training for expatriates measured?
2. What is the definition of success and failure in the context of CCT?
3. Which moderators play a role in the evaluation of success and failure?
4. What are the models of evaluation?
This review focused on published research on cross-cultural expatriate training. The
researcher reviewed all bodies of research that mentioned expatriation, cross cultural training,
and multi-cultural training. Searches included research articles and dissertations in scholarly
Learning and Performance Quarterly, 1(2), 2012
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Joshua-Gojer, Ashwini Esther. Cross-Cultural Training and Success Versus Failure of Expatriates, article, 2012; [Denton, Texas]. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122179/m1/2/: accessed April 25, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT College of Information.