Future accelerators using micro-fabrication technology Page: 1 of 2
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12th Int. Conf. on High Energy Accelerators
Fermilab, 8/11-16/83 BNL 33749
FUTURE ACCELERATORS USING MICRO-FABRICATION TECHNOLOGY*
Brookhaven National Laboratory BNL--33749
Associated Universities, Inc. DE84 002692
Upton, NY 11973
Historically, each generation of iew accelerators has produced a thousand-fold
increase over their predecessors. Thus, the d.c. accelerators were surpassed by
weak focusing cyclotrons and synchrotrons. Then strong focusing machines surpassed
the weak focusing ones, and now we are in theprocess of designing machines for
10-20 TeV.' This paper is devoted to the study of the next generation of accelerators
which we can contemplate will be in the range of 1000 TeV. The radiation loss in a
circular machine would correspond to approximately 20 TeV/turn! It is clear then
that the future generation of accelerators will have to be linear accelerators.
Furthermore, since the center of mass energy of a 1000 TeV machine is only approximately
1.5 TeV, these linacs will be built in pairs and operated primarily as linear colliders.
This means that the average beam power in one of the devices will be quite large. This
in turn leads us toward high efficiency acceleration schemes, capable of high repetition
rates. The poor efficiency of laser accelerators and other exotic proposals make them
poor candidates for a future generation collider.
The most straightforward approach to the problem is to improve current linac tech-
nology. There are two directions to go which clearly are desirable. One is to go to
higher acceleration fields, and the other is to go to higher frequency. A penalty one
pays for higher frequencies is that the number of klystrons (or other rf device) in-
creases rapidly. Not until the frequency is high enough, and hence the klystrons small
enough that they can be built using micro-fabrication technology, does increasing fre-
quency pay off. It is necessary to produce the entire accelerating structure, rf source,
modulator, phase control and instrumentation on a single "chip". Frequencies between
300-100 GHz would allow one to have thousands ofindependently phased cavities/meter.
The klystron beam, as well as the -accelerated beam, must be very small in diameter,
i.e., much less than the wavelength at 300-1000 GHz, which is on the order of 300-1000
microns. Typical beam diameters will be less than 30-100 microns. The practical way to
focus beams of this diameter is to use electrostatic quadrupoles. Hence, It will be
important to learn how to produce electrostatic quadrupole transport systems using micro-
If one can achieve 100 MeV/meter, than the 1000 TeV machine is 10,000 km long.
However, the transverse dimension would probably be no more than 1 mm high and 1 cm wide.
The accelerator cost would have to be less than $1000/meter to make such an accelerator
practical (i.e., 10 billion dollars seems like a plausible upper bound). The accelerators
would contain perhaps 1010 klystrons, each with a peak power of approximately 200 watts.
The cost would have to be brought down to approximately 0.l$/klystron to make this prac-
tical. In the light of present microfabrication costs, this does not appear unreasonable.
11OF THS nOCr~ TISU (TF
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Maschke, A.W. Future accelerators using micro-fabrication technology, article, January 1, 1983; Upton, New York. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1184390/m1/1/: accessed March 25, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.