Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses Page: 75
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The distributional assumptions of reasonably normal distributions, linearly related, and
homoscedasticity using inspection of residuals were done before statistical analysis was
completed (Erdfelder, 2010; Foster, Barkus, & Yavorsky, 2006). Field (2009) details several
criteria about how to check the assumptions: The variable types have to be quantitative or at least
have two categories; the predictors have to have some variation and not be zero, with no prefect
linear relationships between two or more predictors; and homoscedasticity checked by
examining the residuals at each level of predictor should have same variance. If the assumptions
are not met then corrections will be made prior to data analysis. Scatter plots of the residuals,
"the differences between the scores predicted by the multiple regression equation and the actual
scores" (Foster, Barkus, & Yavorsky, 2006, p. 38), will be examined comparing each
independent variable with the dependent variable to determine normal distribution, linearity, and
homoscedasticity. "If all three assumptions are met, the plot of the residuals against predicted
scores will be roughly rectangular" (Foster et al., 2006, p. 38).
The data were examined for outliers in data using frequency distributions. "Outliers are
items of data which are deviant, a long way from the mean" (Foster, Barkus, & Yavorsky, 2006,
p. 36). If outliers were found they were examined and a determination made whether removal,
square root transformation, or inverse transformation would be best for the data analysis by
running data without the outliers than with the transformed outliers (Osborne & Waters, 2002).
Standard multiple regression and a commonality analysis were used to examine the
variables' relationships. The commonality analysis was used to more fully interpret the
regression effects of the variables and the variances (Nimon & Reio, 2011). The descriptive
statistics reviewed the distribution of scores and variances. A summary table of the Pearson
correlations between the variables is provided delineating all six hypotheses. The regression
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Melius, Joyce. Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses, dissertation, May 2012; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc115119/m1/83/: accessed March 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .