Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses Page: 69
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coefficient of the total scale of 0.91. Pearson's correlation between each item and the total scale
was calculated, and the correlations for positive-affect items ranged from .26 to .74, with a
median .51 and the negative-affect items ranged from .57-.75, with a median of .67. Bai et al.
recommended that the two items in the positive-affect with a low (.31 and .26) item-total
correlation remain in the instrument because they augment the positive dimension.
Nursing Self-Efficacy for Mathematics (NSE-math)
The NSE-Math is a 12-item questionnaire measuring the nurse's confidence in
performing arithmetic operations and medication calculation related to nursing practice (Andrew
et al., 2009). Each item on the NSE-Math instrument uses a 1-10 scale, beginning with no
confidence at all to complete confidence. The questionnaire is scored by summing the numbers,
with a high score indicating a high level of self-efficacy. The minimum score is 12, and the
maximum score is 120. There are two factors demonstrated in the questionnaire, confidence in
application of mathematic concepts to nursing practice (Items 1,6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12) and
confidence in arithmetic concepts (Items 2, 3, 4, 5) (Andrew et al., 2009). The original test, with
permission to use, was obtained from one of the original authors and has not been modified.
Face validity was established by a panel of experienced nursing teachers who also teach
medication calculations to nursing students (Andrew et al., 2009). Construct validity was
established by using an oblique rotation and factor loading. The NSE-math demonstrated two
factors, confidence in application of mathematic concepts to nursing practice and confidence in
arithmetic concepts. These two factors explained 63.5 of the variance. Predictive validity was
tested comparing students with NSE-math scores (high or low) with their scores on the
mathematics test and found that second-year nursing students with low self-efficacy had lower
scores on the mathematics exam. The Cronbach alpha, calculated to determine internal
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Melius, Joyce. Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses, dissertation, May 2012; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc115119/m1/77/: accessed July 27, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .