Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses Page: 68
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a brief explanation concerning the intended purpose and requirements to complete the process; it
also explained that if the person fills out the questionnaire he/she consented to participate. The
papers were inserted into a large envelope with instructions on the outside requesting help with
research and indicating how to return the completed instruments.
Mathematics Anxiety Scale (MAS)
The MAS is a 14-item questionnaire measuring the subject's perception of apprehension
of the questions regarding certain mathematics activities. The apprehension scale uses a 1-5
scale, from strongly disagree to strongly agree. On the scale, 43% of the questions are worded
positively, and 57% of the questions are worded in the negative. The scale is scored by adding up
the numbers, with a high score indicating a high level of mathematics anxiety. The minimum
score is 14, and the maximum score 70. The positively worded items are reverse scored (Items 1,
3, 5, 10, 12, 13) (Bai et al., 2009). Because of the 0.91 Cronbach's alpha assessing the internal
consistency of the entire instrument, Bai et al. determined that their revised 14-item MAS scale,
with the bidimensional form, measured the mathematic anxiety construct adequately. The
bidimensional scale with positively worded items and negatively worded items were correlated
but with separate dimensions of mathematics anxiety; when used together they can accurately
locate high anxiety or low anxiety in the subjects (Bai et al., 2009). The Bai et al. form of the
MAS instrument, with permission to use, was obtained from the original author and was not
Bai et al. (2009) improved the 14-item Mathematics Anxiety Scale-Revised (MAR-S) as
utilized by Betz (1978) and described in detail the tool's psychometric properties. The
researchers adapted the MAS and then administered it to 78 undergraduate college mathematics
students to collect the data. Internal consistency was determined using Cronbach's alpha
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Melius, Joyce. Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses, dissertation, May 2012; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc115119/m1/76/: accessed June 26, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .