Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses Page: 60
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a socially driven response. The authors concluded that two goals of educators are to help
student's value mathematics and become confident in their own ability.
Motivation can be general or task specific, intrinsic or extrinsic or a blend. According to
Ames (1992), "Motivations are reasons individuals have for behaving in a given manner in a
given situation. They exist as part of one's goal structures, one's beliefs about what is important,
and they determine whether or not one will engage in a given pursuit" (p. 261).
Common intrinsic rewards include self-efficacy, competence, curiosity, task-
involvement, enjoyment, self-regulation, and self-determination (Amabile, Hill, Hennessay, &
Tighe, 1994; Hardr6 & Miller, 2006). Students who are intrinsically driven have several
attributes, such as spending more time on task; persisting in spite of failure; selecting more
difficult tasks and having a better comprehension of the underlying processes and concepts; and
not requiring extrinsic rewards. Developing intrinsic motivation in mathematics may take time.
Betz (2000) writes extensively about using self-efficacy theory and its relationship with
career choices. She describes the details of mathematics self-efficacy and its relationship to
choices of career and course choices. Mathematics self-efficacy is influenced by gender, gender-
role socialization, high school mathematics preparations, and mathematics achievement (Betz,
2000, p. 211).
Motivation for nurses may lead to the same behaviors as the students, and it also may
include no punishment, no blame, no guilt, a good outcome, not wanting to look stupid in front
of peers (physicians, pharmacists, friends), or the motivation not to make mistakes. Many nurses
are uncomfortable with mathematics and have a difficult time assisting others with dosage
calculations. Many are unable to estimate mathematics and see that their answer is not feasible.
Many nurses can do the mathematics in a controlled environment, but cannot think when rushed,
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Melius, Joyce. Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses, dissertation, May 2012; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc115119/m1/68/: accessed October 17, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .