Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses Page: 58
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time that the performance is being assessed" (as cited in Lee, 2001, para. 4). Self-efficacy
measurements must be specific to the performance they are measuring; the available tools are not
specific enough to measure specific performance outcomes (Kranzler & Pajares, 1997) such as
nursing medication calculations. The tools can measure only general, common mathematics tasks
that may be similar. "A generalized measure is unlikely to be of much value as a more specific
assessment that is directly related to the outcome one wishes to predict" (Kranzler & Pajares, p.
217). Nielson and Moore (2003) suggest that since self-efficacy assessment needs to be specific,
it should be domain specific rather than task specific. They use the example that high self-
efficacy for algebra may not lead to high-self efficacy for geometry. They postulate that "it is
important to establish what level of specificity prevails to inform practical treatments (e.g.,
teaching, counseling) as well as future research applications" (p. 129). Finally, the level of
specificity needs to relate closely to the critical tasks against which the performance is measured.
Nielson and Moore (2003) established the psychometric data for their specific
mathematics self-efficacy scale used to study 302 high school students. They made the content of
the self- efficacy scale specific to the content of the student's math core curriculum material.
Construct validity was established with a previously tested subscale designed to assess
mathematics self-concept. Their findings indicated that the differences in scores and self-
efficacy were related to the low self-efficacy scores more than high self-efficacy scores. The
usefulness of the self-efficacy measurement may be helpful in planning intervention strategies
for persons with low self-efficacy and low mathematics performance.
Mathematics self-efficacy was studied in college freshmen who had to take a remedial
math class compared with students in regular college algebra and calculus (Hall & Ponton,
2005). The plan was to see whether there was a relationship between the students enrolled in
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Melius, Joyce. Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses, dissertation, May 2012; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc115119/m1/66/: accessed September 24, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .