Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses Page: 57
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process that individuals use to judge their ability to self-regulate and succeed in an activity
(Stevens et al., 2004).
Bandura (1997) has postulated that "'self-efficacy develops from prior mastery
experiences, vicarious learning, verbal persuasion, and evaluations of emotional states"' (as cited
in Stevens et al., 2004, p. 209). Self-efficacy develops after personal experiences or by learning
from the experiences of others (vicarious learning), what a person is taught or convinced of, and
how the experiences affected the person emotionally. A person can have self-efficacy at different
levels for different activities. People with high self-efficacy for a task believe in their own
capabilities more positively than those people with a low level of self-efficacy (Nielsen &
Moore, 2003). Warwick (2008) noted that a feedback loop for self-efficacy leads to engagement
in learning, engagement leads to outcomes, and positive outcomes lead to engagement in
learning. The feedback loop, however, can be positive or negative. Therefore, a negative self-
efficacy may lead to less engagement and poorer outcomes (Warwick, 2008).
Stevens et al. (2004) studied 358 ninth- and 10th-grade students and found that self-
efficacy could predict motivation orientation and mathematics achievement with Hispanic and
Caucasian students (Hispanic students had a slightly better predictability). It was suggested that
self-efficacy influences mathematics achievement: (a) Ability and prior experience influence
self-efficacy, (b) Mathematics self-efficacy influences motivational orientations, (c) Mathematics
self-efficacy, motivational orientation, and mathematics performance influence the student to
take other courses in mathematics.
Measurements of self-efficacy should be specific to the task and measured
simultaneously with the task. Bandura (1986) cautioned that "a self-efficacy instrument must
assess the specific skills needed for performing an activity and must be administered during the
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Melius, Joyce. Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses, dissertation, May 2012; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc115119/m1/65/: accessed September 24, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .