Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses Page: 56
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the task or find a solution to the problem. Beilock, Kulp, Holt, and Carr (2004) have suggested
that repeated practice of certain elements of a skill or problem-solving exercise, such as solving
math problems, diminishes the distraction when other elements cause the stress level to rise.
They propose that the repeated practice will be more useful in math problem-solving ability
under stress than the explicit monitoring theory of learning steps for skill performance and
focusing on performing the skills automatically.
Latent factors are related to the elements that are not usually an issue, but if the right
circumstances occur, can contribute to a problem. A latent factor leading to an error is something
that is "waiting to happen" because there are system issues that may be potentially unsafe if all
the variations line up and become a problem (McDowell et al., 2009). Inadequate use of
technology, work-arounds, and unfamiliarity with equipment can be potential sources of a
problem in certain situations.
Human factors influence how people function in the patient care environment. In order to
ensure good safety measures, health care systems need to be acutely aware of the human element
in the initiation of new programs. By investigating the underlying system, as well as human and
latent factors, the health care provider can improve performance and improve safety. Underlying
human factors related to stress, fatigue, the work environment, mathematics anxiety, confidence
and mathematics self-efficacy, and many other factors are related to medication calculation
Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Mathematics Anxiety
Both fear and anxiety regarding mathematics are real to many people. Mathematics self-
efficacy or a person's confidence in the performance of mathematics may be related to prior
experiences, innate beliefs, successes, and/or failures. Mathematics self-efficacy is a self-referent
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Melius, Joyce. Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses, dissertation, May 2012; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc115119/m1/64/: accessed February 21, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .