Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses Page: 36
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Also suggested is an environment that incorporates an error-reporting systems to capture near
misses and analyze them as constructive data and also to capture process issues that include
active failures and latent conditions. The common environment does not encourage active
reporting of errors or near misses. Many health care providers are fearful of punishment and
adverse consequences from administration, peers, and colleagues. There are many barriers to
reporting errors and near misses such as lack of knowledge of routines and rules, being too busy
to report errors,and simple neglect to report, as well as nurse's attitudes, personality, and
compliance (Ulanimo, O'Leary-Kelley, & Connolly, 2007). National and state legislative,
licensing, and accrediting agencies are concerned with the number of medical errors and have
instituted several safety initiatives in an attempt to help health care facilities improve medical
error rates and the work environment.
Nurses administer medications in health care settings throughout the world and encounter
similar medication calculation issues. Jones (2009) examined medication errors in England and
Wales. In her literature review she found that the main causes of medication administration
errors of nurses were person-centered factors, lack of calculation competency, not following the
protocols appropriately, and system factors such as distractions and time pressures She also
noted that nurses lack confidence in their math skills, especially those of infusion calculations.
Nurses make many of the medication errors, in part because they administer most of the
medications. Findings from a study of the origin of errors indicated that 38% of preventable
medication errors occurred at the administration step (Bates et al., 1995, as cited in Shane, 2009).
Wrong drug and wrong dose are medication errors at the administration stage. Kuitunen et al.,
(2008) analyzed medication errors made by health care professionals in a Finnish poison control
center that receives calls from the hospital when medication errors occur. They found that in
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Melius, Joyce. Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses, dissertation, May 2012; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc115119/m1/44/: accessed May 24, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .