Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses Page: 35
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consequences" (p. 1). They stated that "medication errors account for 78% of serious medical
errors in the ICU (Rothschild et al., 2005, p. 1 as cited in Moyen et al., 2008).
The risk factors for medication errors described by Moyen et al. (2008) are patient
factors, medications, and the ICU environment. Patients are at risk because they are severely ill
and receiving more medications, have longer hospital stays, are older, and often are sedated.
Medication risk factors include the types of medications, actual number of medications, number
of medications that are injected or infused, number that are based on the patient's weight, those
that require calculations and careful monitoring, and use of sophisticated pumps that require
programming. The environmental risk factors are related to the complexity of the situation, the
many different care providers, and difficult working conditions, to name a few. Moyen et al.
(2008) suggest optimization of the medication process, elimination of situational factors, and
oversight, and error interception for preventing errors (see Table 2 for more detail).
Simple Strategies to Prevent Medication Errors
Optimize the medication process
1. Medication standardization
2. Computerized physician order entry and clinical decision support
3. Barcode technology
4. Computerized intravenous infusion devices
5. Medication reconciliation
Eliminate situational risk factors
1. Avoid excessive consecutive and cumulative working hours
2. Minimize interruptions and distractions
3. Trainee supervision and graduated responsibility
Oversight and error interception
1. Intensivist participation in ICU care
2. Adequate staffing
3. Pharmacist participation in ICU care
4. Incorporation of quality assurance into academic education
(Moyen et al.)
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Melius, Joyce. Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses, dissertation, May 2012; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc115119/m1/43/: accessed July 24, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .