Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses Page: 32
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In spite of these new strategies, Moyen et al. (2008) feel that there is little evidence of
substantial performance improvement with a decrease in errors because human factors continue
to be a frequent cause of errors. New equipment, software, and revised medication processes are
only part of the remedy for correcting medication errors. Nurses and other health care providers
need adequate knowledge and skills to effectively implement and utilize the changes. Nurses
must be familiar with the medication's use, usual dose, side effects, and reasons for why the
patient is taking the medication and prerequisites to check before administration. Nurses need
adequate resources, medical calculators, drug books, and other materials, including the patient's
medical record, for bedside medication preparation and administration.
Rashidee et al. (2009) analyzed medication errors reported on the MEDMARX data
repository and ISMP medication error reporting program from 2006 to 2008. They identified
443,683 medication errors from approximately 537 facilities of which 98% were from inpatient
settings. In these inpatient settings 32,546 (7%) were related to the high-alert medications. High-
alert medications have a high volume of use and high potential of greatest harm if not given
properly (i.e., insulin, heparin, warfarin, digoxin, etc). While the majority (54%) was located in
inpatient care units, 21% were reported in the inpatient pharmacy departments, and 7% were
reported in all ICUs combined. Table 1 itemizes types and distribution of medication errors
reported in Rashidee et al. The most common type of errors was omission errors (26%), directly
followed by improper dose and quantity (22%). Figure 3 shows that most high-alert medication
errors occurred in the dispensing (29%) and administration (29%) stages followed closely by
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Melius, Joyce. Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses, dissertation, May 2012; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc115119/m1/40/: accessed April 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .