Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses Page: 31
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medications (Cummings et al., 2005; Fowler, Sohler, & Zarillo, 2009). The bar code system does
not speed up the medication process, which is believed to take up to 40% of the nurse's time, but
it will improve safety of the patient, through right time, right dose, right route, and right
medication (Fowler et al., 2009). The initial capital costs may be between $1 million and $5
million, depending on the facility size, infrastructure, hardware, software, and other computer
capabilities, and there will be ongoing costs for support, upgrades, and training. The return on
investment of the bar code system has not been established; however, the cost may be small in
comparison to treating patients who have suffered because of a medication error. Administration
errors have been documented to be reduced by 60% using a bar coding system (Cummings et al.,
Infusion devices such as smart pumps, patient-controlled analgesia pumps, infusion
pumps, and auto-injectors are some of the machines used to make giving injectable medications
easier. Rates of flow and other parameters have to be set into the machines. Some machines do
some of the calculations for the nurse. For instance, some infusion pumps have a menu of
common infusions and standard concentrations from which to choose; the care provider has to
select the correct item and enter the dose ordered, and the pump will calculate the infusion rate.
If the infusion is weight-based, the care provider will be prompted to enter the patient's weight,
in kilograms, and the pump will then calculate the more complex infusion rate. However, the
nurse has to calculate volumes to be infused and infusion rates per hour that are programmed into
the pump. Nurses' lack of understanding in how to operate infusion devices has been associated
with errors (Shane, 2009), and alerts have been found to be bypassed 25% of the time
(Rothschild et al., 2005).
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Melius, Joyce. Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses, dissertation, May 2012; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc115119/m1/39/: accessed February 26, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .