Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses Page: 30
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incentives to hospitals that adopt qualified electronic health records and reduce Medicare
payments for non-adopting hospitals beginning in 2016. CPOE purports to decrease errors and
save money by improving physician prescribing and transcription; however, many other types of
errors occur. Preparation and administration medication errors are just as significant in the well-
being of the patient. Other solutions are proposed to prevent preparation, distribution, and
administration errors such as automated dosage systems (ADS), satellite pharmacies, and bar
The ADS represent another safety initiate suggested to decrease medication errors. ADS
are designed to prevent wrong dose, wrong time, wrong patient, wrong route, and wrong drug
errors, and at the same time decrease the usual time lag between when the medication was
ordered to when it was given. ADS are computerized cabinets that require authorization to fill
and remove medications for patients', they are designed to make medications readily available
and yet prevent nurses from taking out medications inappropriately and committing an error.
Pharmacy personnel will add the medications from the new orders to the patients profile; the
nurse will then be authorized to remove the medication from the system. Systems can be simple
when medications are in stock and the nurse removes them as needed; the system controls the
stock. Systems can be more complex when the medication profile set for the patient in the
computer allows only a certain caregiver to take certain medications out at a certain time. The
nurse still has to give the medication correctly to the prescribed patient.
Bar code technology has been in use for a few years in some systems (Cummings, Bush,
Smith, & Matuszewski, 2005). The bar code system encodes patients and their medication into
the electronic system; a bar code reader is used at the bedside (point-of-care) by the nurse to scan
their name badge, the patients arm band, and the medication in order to correctly administer the
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Melius, Joyce. Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses, dissertation, May 2012; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc115119/m1/38/: accessed May 22, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .