Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses Page: 27
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steps the health care provider must take in the administration process. Medications that have to
be prepared, then measured, and finally administered to the patient are at a high risk for error.
Injectable medications often require several steps in the preparation and administration
stages of the medication process. Injectable medications (intramuscular, subcutaneous, and
intravenous) may have to be reconstituted or diluted and drawn into a syringe to be injected into
the patient using the proper technique for administering in the proper site. Injectable medications
may be prepackaged and premixed from a manufacturer, or they may have to be reconstituted or
mixed by the nurse or pharmacist. The preparation process may take several steps. An injection,
intramuscular or subcutaneous, could be a simple procedure such as a one-time dose dispensed in
a prepackaged form, requiring fewer steps to prepare and administer than one that has to be
reconstituted, calculated for weight and proper dose, and then measured before administering to
the patient. Intravenous infusions generally require more steps and additional skills in using
infusion devices and calculating infusion rates. Intravenous drugs are given intermittently by IV
infusion or IV bolus, while others are given by continuous infusion. Some drugs are more
dangerous than others and have stricter protocols for administration. Many IV medications have
specific guidelines to follow regarding the rate of administration, dose parameters, indications,
and contraindications. Often, standards of medication administration and hospital policies dictate
the use of infusion devices for certain high-risk medications or populations. High-risk
medications include critical care drugs to increase blood pressure, potassium, and certain
antibiotics; high-risk vulnerable populations include the elderly and pediatric patients. Some
medications and IV infusions not only require infusion devices but must also be given in
specialized areas such as intensive care and administered by specially trained personnel
(physician, anesthesia person, chemotherapy-certified RN or ICU RN, etc.) with close
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Melius, Joyce. Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses, dissertation, May 2012; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc115119/m1/35/: accessed May 26, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .