Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses Page: 25
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process may be partially due to the fact that the nurse may only prepare certain medications
during a critical situation or crisis. Potential dispensing errors of the pharmacist and nurse may
be the dispensing of the wrong drug, or wrong dose, or they may be due to "look alike" names of
drugs, and similar packaging for different doses of the same drugs or different drugs (Amalberti
et al., 2005; Horns & Loper, 2002; Rashidee et al., 2009). Errors in preparation may be mixture
of calculation errors of dilution or concentration of oral and injectable medications as well as
intravenous infusions. The preparation step is usually done in the pharmacy by staff or by
pharmacists themselves. The pharmacist, or technician, labels the medication and delivers it to
the patient care area for administration. Some medications are sold to the facility in prepackaged
and premixed forms, and others must be prepared. Sometimes the preparation has to be done at
the bedside immediately prior to administration ,and in most instances this is done by the nurse.
Some research findings have suggested having a "satellite pharmacy" in or near patient care
areas that require a substantial volume of medications (Grandell-Niemi et al., 2001; Taxis &
Barber, 2004; Wirtz, Taxis, & Barber, 2003).
The satellite pharmacy is a "mini pharmacy" on specific units, stocked with unit-specific
items that can immediately be prepared and dispensed, making the process quicker and possibily
deterring time lags and decreasing errors. Some acute care facilities have satellite pharmacies in
surgical areas, critical care areas, and between high patient volume floors such as oncology or
orthopedics. The satellite pharmacy has become more popular because it is thought that the
pharmacist is not as close to the stressful situation, is more familiar with mixing drugs and doing
calculations, and will therefore make fewer mathematic mistakes (Taxis & Barber, 2003; 2004;
Wirtz et al., 2003). The pharmacy prepares and dispenses medications; however, the nurse
usually administers the medication.
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Melius, Joyce. Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses, dissertation, May 2012; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc115119/m1/33/: accessed July 27, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .