Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses Page: 24
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inattentive, rushed, distracted, fatigued, or depressed ... and medication error rates are
higher in hospital pediatric and intensive care departments. (p. 605)
Figure 3. Stages in the medication process.
Prescribing is the source of about 11% of medication errors, and administration accounts
for 40% of the mistakes (USP, 2000, as cited in Tang et al., 2007). Transcribing is usually done
by an assistant and checked by the pharmacist or nurse; the order or prescription is then
transmitted to the pharmacist in handwritten form or digitally by computer. Potential errors
during the prescribing stages are related to wrong treatment prescribed, handwriting issues,
several people handling the order, and the multistep process. Preparing and dispensing are
generally done by the pharmacy under sterile controlled conditions; however, nurses may also be
responsible for dispensing and preparing some medications that have to be mixed and prepared
immediately prior to administration. According to McDowell et al. (2009), there are as many as
12 steps to perform in order to give an IV injection (p. 606). Errors during the preparation
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Melius, Joyce. Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses, dissertation, May 2012; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc115119/m1/32/: accessed August 20, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .