Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses Page: 23
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REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze the relationships that exist between
mathematics anxiety, nurse self-efficacy for mathematics, and medication calculation
performance of acute care nurses. This chapter includes the following sections: (a) Medication
Process and Potential for Errors, (b) Medication Safety Initiatives, (c) Medication Errors, (d)
Nurses Mathematics Ability, (e) Nurses' Education, Licensure and Medication Expectations, (f)
Acute Care Nurses Medication Calculation Training and Competency, (g) Mathematics and
Medication Calculation Performance Factors, (h) Mathematics Self-efficacy and Mathematics
Anxiety, and (i) Summary. This review of the literature does not cover the larger areas of belief
systems; behavioral theories of motivation; skill evaluation of mastery or degradation;
psychomotor learning; or learning transfer.
Medication Process and Potential for Errors
An understanding of the basic elements of the medication process is essential in
evaluating medication errors, including calculation errors. The medication process has multiple
stages with a variety of health care providers involved in each stage of the process. The stages of
the medication process are prescribing, transcribing, preparing, dispensing, and administration
(Jones, 2009; McDowell et al., 2009; Moyen et al., 2008; see Figure 3). Documentation is part of
the process that must be done during all stages. Because the multiple stage process involves a
variety of health care professionals the process is prone to errors. The exact reason each error
occurs can be difficult to determine because of the wide range of possibilities. McDowell et al.
(2009) state the following:
Tasks that require the calculation of a dosage or dilution are especially susceptible to
error .... The error rate increases when health-care professionals are inexperienced,
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Melius, Joyce. Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses, dissertation, May 2012; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc115119/m1/31/: accessed April 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .