Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses Page: 14
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People with high self-efficacy for a task believe in their own capabilities more positively than
those with a low level of self-efficacy (Nielsen & Moore, 2003). It is postulated that persons who
have positive self-efficacy approach a task and persist in their efforts to complete the task with a
positive sense of self-confidence. In turn, outcome expectations related to self-efficacy have the
potential to predict performance expectations (Betz, 1978). Individuals acquire their sense of
self-efficacy during their life experiences, which are influenced by the environment and the
variety of information sources.
Mathematics self-efficacy and nurses' medication calculation abilities are linked. Nurses
and nursing students' medication calculation skills have been positively related to their comfort
and confidence levels in the calculating medication including IV medications (Andrew,
Salamonson, & Halcomb, 2009; Grandell-Niemi et al., 2001; Harne-Britner et al., 2006;
Roykenes & Larsen, 2010). Comfort and confidence levels are part of self-efficacy. Andrew et
al. (2009) describe two factors combined to measure nurse self-efficacy for math; one factor is
"confidence in application of mathematic concepts to nursing practice," and the second factor is
"confidence in arithmetic concepts" (p. 220). The tool they tested for nurse self-efficacy in math
had predictive validity with the medication calculation test administered.
Hypothesis 2. The perceptions of nurse self-efficacy for mathematics is positively related
to performance on a medication calculation test.
Mathematics anxiety and mathematics self-efficacy are two factors related to mathematic
performance, and one may augment the other or vice versa (Roykenes & Larsen, 2010). They
suggest that if the students had few mastery experiences and had experienced failures in
mathematics that decreased their self-belief. There may be a connection between nursing
students' perceived stress related to the no-error requirement, previous mathematic skills, and
perceptions of their ability to perform the drug calculation test (Roykenes & Larsen, 2010).
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Melius, Joyce. Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses, dissertation, May 2012; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc115119/m1/22/: accessed April 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .