Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses Page: 13
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factors, the health care provider can improve performance and improve safety. Underlying
human factors affect how stress, fatigue, and the work environment influence ones medication
calculation ability. Stress may include mathematic anxiety and low confidence levels regarding
Hypothesis 1. The perception of mathematics anxiety is negatively related to
performance of medication calculations.
Nurse Self-Efficacy for Mathematics
Self-efficacy is referred to as "beliefs in one's capability to organize and execute the
courses of action required to manage perspective situations" (Bandura, 1977, p. 2). Personal
beliefs that actions will produce a desired outcome influence the incentive or persistence in
performance while facing difficulties (Parajas, 1997). Low self-efficacy expectations regarding a
behavior lead to avoidance of the behavior, and as the self-efficacy increases, the frequency of
approaching the behavior should increase (Betz & Hackett, 1993).
Self-efficacy regarding mathematics is defined by Betz and Hackett (1993) as perceptions
of one's performance capabilities related to math problems, math tasks, and math-related course
work. Mathematics self-efficacy is in part one's confidence in personal performance of
mathematics and may be related to prior experiences, innate beliefs, successes, and/or failures.
Mathematics self-efficacy is a self-referent process that individuals use to judge their ability to
self-regulate and succeed in an activity (Stevens, Olivarez, Lan, & Tallent-Runnels, 2004).
Bandura (1997) has postulated that "'self-efficacy develops from prior mastery experiences,
vicarious learning, verbal persuasion, and evaluations of emotional states'" (as cited in Stevens
et al., 2004, p. 209). Self-efficacy develops after personal experiences or by learning from the
experiences of others, what a person is taught or convinced of, and how the experiences affected
the person emotionally. A person can have self-efficacy at different levels for different activities.
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Melius, Joyce. Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses, dissertation, May 2012; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc115119/m1/21/: accessed January 19, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .