Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses Page: 8
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Theoretical Model and Hypotheses
The theoretical model illustrates the relationships between mathematic anxiety,
mathematic self-efficacy, type of nurse (RN or LVN), and performance on a medication
calculation test. Mathematic self-efficacy, mathematic anxiety, and beliefs about mathematics
have been correlated with mathematic ability (r = 0.44, p = 0.001) (Hackett & Betz, 1989;
Medication Calculation Performance
Accurate medication calculation performance is imperative for safe patient care. Nurses
administer most medications and are the last line of defense for patients. Medication errors are
more common in pediatrics and intensive care and are often involve multistep calculations using
weight-based dosing, decimals, and fractions and require the use of infusion devices (Moyen et
al., 2008; Rashidee, Hart, Chen, & Kumar, 2009; "Preventing Pediatric Medication Errors,"
2008; Shane, 2009). According to Hughes and Edgerton (2005), children are at a higher risk for
harmful medication errors, and dosing errors are the most common type of drug errors in
pediatrics because many of their medications are weight based. They also agree that with small
patients, such as premature babies, dosing errors are more harmful and many times have
devastating consequences (Hughes & Edgerton, 2005; "Preventing Pediatric Medication Errors,"
2008; Shane, 2009). Adult patients are at risk because they are severely ill and getting more
medications, have longer hospital stays, are older, and often are sedated (Shane, 2009).
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reviewed 273 medication reports and
classified each report into categories: communication, name confusion, labeling, human factors
(knowledge deficit, performance deficit, miscalculation of dosage or infusion rate, drug
preparation error, transcription error, stress), and packaging/design (Thomas et al., 2001). They
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Melius, Joyce. Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses, dissertation, May 2012; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc115119/m1/16/: accessed May 22, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .