Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses Page: 3
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research needs to be done in this area to detect and remedy the errors/mistakes. Patient care
delivery needs to change from a system of punitive solutions and blame to a system approach
focusing on health work environments and positive patient outcomes. Reason (2000) describes a
system approach that looks at errors as opportunities to improve process and remove many of the
negative approaches that lead to fear, blaming, and shaming. The premise is that "we cannot
change the human condition; we can change the conditions under which humans work" (p. 768).
The most alarming thing about medication errors is that they occur more often in
vulnerable populations. "Critically ill patients are prescribed twice as many medications as
patients outside of the intensive care unit (ICU) and nearly all will suffer a potentially life-
threatening error at some point during their stay" (Moyen, Camir6, & Stelfox, 2008, p. 1).
"Medication dosing errors are more common in pediatrics than adults because of weight-based
dosing calculation, fractional dosing (e.g., mg vs. Gm), and the need for decimal points"
("Preventing Pediatric Medication Errors," 2008, p. 1). The rate of potential adverse events may
be as much as three times higher in pediatrics and many were preventable or could have been
identified earlier. ICU patients are also at risk because they "are prescribed twice as many
medications" as others (Moyen et al., 2008, p. 208) and ICU patients have many more IV
Medication dose calculation errors are among the various types of medication
administration errors. Several researchers agree that one in six medication errors involve
calculations (Capriotti, 2004; Lesar, Briceland, & Stein, 1997). Medication calculation errors are
between 7%-14% of all medication errors (Polifroni, McNulty, & Allchin, 2003). The OR
Manager (2006) indicates that "patients in the operating room (OR) received the wrong amount
of a drug... 33% of errors in children versus 16% in adults" and "in the PACU [post anesthesia
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Melius, Joyce. Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses, dissertation, May 2012; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc115119/m1/11/: accessed March 29, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .