Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses Page: 2
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Commission, 2010). The Joint Commission (2010) reports that as many as 8% of the sentinel
events are due to medication errors and 67% of the sentinel events end in patient death.
Fatal iatrogenic Blood transfusion
Cardiac surgery il Anesthesiology in
patient in A Sc - s y Medical risk (total) patient in SA 1
Himalaya large-jet aviation C "
mountaineering Road safety
Microlight aircraft or Nuclear industry 0
Chemical industry (total)
10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5 10-6
Very unsafe Ultrasafe
Figure 1. Average rate per exposure of catastrophes and associated deaths in various industries and
human activities (adapted from Amalberti et al., 2005).
Another alarming element of medical errors is that many believe the number to be quite
conservative. A punitive environment continues to exist in health care; consequently, many
health care workers do not report all errors and almost never report near misses (McBride-Henry
& Foureur, 2006; Wolf & Serembus, 2004). The number of errors reported and observed in
several studies notes huge discrepancies in reported number of errors and actual observed errors
(Milch et al., 2006; Shane, 2009). Flynn, Barker, and Pepper et al. (2002, as cited in Shane,
2009) state that using the "observation methodology detected 300 errors, compared with 17
errors identified by chart review and one error detected by incident report review" (p. S46). More
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Melius, Joyce. Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses, dissertation, May 2012; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc115119/m1/10/: accessed October 18, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .