Chlorine demand of Savannah River water Page: 7 of 30
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The same procedure as described above was repeated with
different sets of replicate flasks dosed at 3 mg/1 ci„ and 5
mg/1 Cl2. 2
Data Processing Procedures
Numerical results were computerized and the data were
tabulated, graphed and statistically analyzed on a mainframe
computer system using a group of software programs
collectively called the Statistical Analysis System (SAS)
(SAS Institute Inc., 1985). Statistical testing was
principally conducted using the general linear model (GLM)
procedure (SAS Institute Inc., 1988) which uses least
squares to fit fixed-effects linear models to the data.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
All results of the TRC and FRC measurements made on the
seven dates in conjunction with this study are reported in
Appendix Table A-l. Temperature, pH, and ammonia nitrogen
levels of the water on each collection date are shown in
Appendix Table A-2.
Chlorine demand is defined as the difference between the
amount of chlorine added to the water and the amount of
chlorine remaining at the end of a specified contact period
(White, 1986). Although no universal standard exists for the
amount of chlorination required for biofouling control, it
has been reported (EPRI, 1984) that chlorine dosages ranging
from 0 to 5 mg/L with contact times ranging from 0 to 120
minutes provide adequate control. Iron bacteria and algae
are considered to be the most resistant micro-biofouling
organisms (EPRI, 1984). Algae can generally be controlled
with a minimum of 1.0 mg/1 FRC and a one-hour contact time.
However, in some cases, a contact time of two hours has
reportedly been required to control algae in cooling tower
applications (EPRI, 1984).
Chlorine demand varies with the amount of chlorine applied
and the contact time (APHA, 1980). This is undoubtedly
because available chlorine reacts with numerous organic and
inorganic compounds at various reaction rates and many of
the reaction rates (e.g. with biological materials) are
influenced by the amount of residual chlorine present
(White, 1986). In the present study, as the chlorine dosage
was increased from 1, to 3, to 5 mg/L, the chlorine demand
increased significantly (Table 1.)
Figure 1 shows the chlorine residual concentrations in
K-Reactor cooling water that were measured on seven dates
following three chlorine dosages and three contact periods.
The data indicate chlorine demand was similar on all dates
except the February 1988 date in which the chlorine demand,
particularly for TRC, was substantially higher.
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Wilde, E.W. Chlorine demand of Savannah River water, report, January 1, 1989; Aiken, South Carolina. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1094127/m1/7/: accessed March 20, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.