Initial evaluation of fracturing oil shale with propellants for in situ retorting, Phase 2 Metadata

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  • Main Title Initial evaluation of fracturing oil shale with propellants for in situ retorting, Phase 2


  • Author: Lekas, M.A.
    Creator Type: Personal
  • Author: Lekas, J.M.
    Creator Type: Personal
  • Author: Strickland, F.G.
    Creator Type: Personal


  • Sponsor: United States. Department of Energy.
    Contributor Type: Organization
    Contributor Info: DOE; USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)


  • Name: Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States)
    Place of Publication: United States


  • Creation: 1991-05-01


  • English


  • Content Description: A series of field experiments was carried out to gather preliminary information on the use of propellant charges to create horizontal fractures in oil shale beds for in situ retorting. Development of a propellant tool specifically designed to create horizontal fractures, and testing of various sizes and designs of the tool to create fractures in oil shale beds were carried out simultaneously. Ten prototype tools with energy yields from 2 pounds to 60 pounds were fired at depths ranging from 10 feet to 60 feet. Ten preshot observation holes and 13 postshot core holes were used to gather information and to serve as injection wells to inject air into the formation for permeability tests. Most shots vented large volumes of gas or water from observation holes 13 to 20 feet distant, indicating that a horizontal fracture communicating from the shot point to the observation hole had been created. Shot-related horizontal fracturing was noted in most core holes at the same depth as the shot point. Air injection tests on all holes showed a significant increase in permeability after the shots.
  • Physical Description: Pages: (40 p)


  • Keyword: Fuels
  • Keyword: Chemical Reactions
  • Keyword: Sedimentary Rocks
  • Keyword: Retorting
  • Keyword: Processing
  • Keyword: Injection Wells
  • Keyword: Shales
  • Keyword: Injection
  • Keyword: Oil Shales
  • STI Subject Categories: 04 Oil Shales And Tar Sands
  • Keyword: Explosives
  • Keyword: Intake
  • Keyword: Air
  • Keyword: Rocks
  • Keyword: Materials
  • Keyword: Wells 040401* -- Oil Shales & Tar Sands-- In Situ Methods, True & Modified
  • Keyword: Fossil Fuels
  • Keyword: Field Tests
  • Keyword: Explosive Fracturing
  • Keyword: In-Situ Retorting
  • Keyword: Fracturing
  • Keyword: Testing
  • Keyword: In-Situ Processing
  • Keyword: Permeability
  • Keyword: Energy Sources
  • Keyword: Fluids
  • Keyword: Gases
  • Keyword: Bituminous Materials
  • Keyword: Decomposition
  • Keyword: Carbonaceous Materials


  • Name: Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports
    Code: OSTI


  • Name: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
    Code: UNTGD

Resource Type

  • Report


  • Text


  • Other: DE92001146
  • Report No.: DOE/MC/11076-3064
  • Grant Number: FC21-86MC11076
  • DOI: 10.2172/5602591
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 5602591
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc1093781


  • Display Note: OSTI; NTIS; GPO Dep.