Transport simulation of ITER (International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor) startup Page: 3 of 3
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Fig. 3. Physics Phase startup evolution oi (e) temperature, (b) avenge electron density. and (c) voil-second requirements.
Fig. 4. Physics Phase profiles of (a) electron temperature, (b) electron density. (c) toul cunent density. ind (d) beam-driven current density
Tit two ITER phases represent die end points of a range of
potentially interesting devices, torn no uniuity source* to foil
maintenance of plume current by noninducrive somcca. Designing
ITER to accommodate these end point] permits future consideration
trf intermediate designs, tailored to new physiol models u they
The leading candidates for ament drive—neutral beam end
lower hybrid-arc inefficient at low plasma temperature. The
efficiencies of ell known iwninduoive schemes lie much leo then
the efficiency of inductive cuncnt drive, which ii (round 19 A/W for
the Technology Phase operating point.* Therefore, a predominantly
inductive turnip teems to be necessary. In such t sunup, mod of
the volt-seconds needed to esublish the operating point ere retained
in ihe poloidil magnetic Held end represent «n irreducible mjnimuin
inveturrent of flux.
Assuming a fixed-radius sunup, the current must be lumped
slowly in order to avoid hollow current density profiles. This results
in dissipation of about IS or 20% of die volt-recoods invested.
Neutral bums have not been observed to significantly reduce the
voft-teconds required to resell the opetiring poult. Bar this reason,
the volt-iecond requirements for sunup of both ITER phases are
similar, except that the Physics (ignited) Phase operates at a higher
current with ptvporbonsaly higher volt-second requirements.
 W. A. Houlhefg. *Vnlt-Semnri Pmumnpinn in Tnluwuln
with Sawtooth Activity,* Nucl. Fusion, vol. 27, p. 1009.
 T. B. Kaiser and N. Porophrey, Transport Timescsle
Simulation afTIER Operating Scerurios,* in Proceedings of
1989 International SMenmod Theory Conference, April 1989.
San Antonio, Tex., 20-12.
 International Thomonudear Experimental Reactor (ITER).
International Atomic Enemy Agency. Vienna, 1988.
 S. E. Attenberger, W. A. Houlbetg. and N. A. Udun,
Transport Analysis of Ignited andCurrent-Drivtn ITER
resigns.* Fusion Technot.. voU5(2). pp. 629-636, March
(51 R. A. Dory, W. A. Houlberg, and S. E- Anenbexger, "Energy
Requirements for Neutral Beam Current Drive in a Large
Tokamak", Comments Plasma Flys. Controlled Fusion,
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Attenberger, S.E. & Houlberg, W.A. Transport simulation of ITER (International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor) startup, article, January 1, 1989; Tennessee. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1093721/m1/3/: accessed March 26, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.