Cryogenic structural materials for superconducting magnets Page: 2 of 19
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This paper reviews research in the United States and Japan on structural materials for
high-field superconducting magnets. Superconducting magnets are used for magnetic fusion
energy devices and for accelerators that are used in particle-physics research. The
cryogenic structural materials that we review are used for magnet cases and support
Structures. We expect increased materials requirements in the future.
Materials needs for superconducting magnets are set by the requirements of the systems
in which they are used. Superconducting magnets are used in several new technologies:
magnetic fusion energy (MFE); accelerators for physics research; and nuclear magnetic
resonance for medical diagnosis.
1. Fusion Energy Devices
Both MFE concepts for plasma confinement use high magnetic fields to confine the
plasma and use superconducting magnets to create the magnetic field. For the toroidal or
"tokamak" concept, the major test-facility in United States is the Tokamak Fusion Test
Reactor (TFTR). The TFTR device uses fields that are about 10 T (tesla) at the magnet
conductor (^5 T at the plasma center). The magnets are copper electromagnets.
Superconducting magnets for tokamaks are being developed at the Large Coil Project (LCP)
at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). At ORflL six large 8-T magnets are being tested.
These particular magnets were chosen to reprebent different design and materials
concepts. Three were constructed in the United States, two in Europe, and one in Japan.
Five use NbTi superconductor; the sixth, built by Westinghouse in the United States, uses
A future tokamak called Tokamak Ignition and Burn Experimental Reactor, "TIBER” will
require toroidal field (TF) coils with peak fields near 10 T at the conductor.
Superconducting poloidal field coils will operate in the 7 to 15 T range. Another
tokamak, Alcator DCT, being designed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT),
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Dalder, E.N.C. & Morris, J.W. Jr. Cryogenic structural materials for superconducting magnets, article, February 22, 1985; [Livermore,] California. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1093083/m1/2/: accessed January 17, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.