Hydraulic-fracture growth in dipping anisotropic strata as viewed through the surface deformation field

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In 1983 and 1984 Oak Rdige National Laboratory conducted a series of precision ground deformation measurements before, during, and after the generation of several large hydraulic fractures in a dipping member of the Cambrian Conasauga Shale. Each fracture was produced by the injection of approximately 500,000 L of slurry on a single day. Injection depth was 300 m. Leveling surveys were run several days before and several days after the injections. An array of eight high-precision borehole tiltmeters monitored ground deformations continuously for a period of several weeks. Analysis of the leveling and the tilt measurements revealed surface uplifts as ... continued below

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Pages: 15

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Holzhausen, G.R.; Haase, C.S.; Stow, S.H. & Gazonas, G. January 1, 1985.

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In 1983 and 1984 Oak Rdige National Laboratory conducted a series of precision ground deformation measurements before, during, and after the generation of several large hydraulic fractures in a dipping member of the Cambrian Conasauga Shale. Each fracture was produced by the injection of approximately 500,000 L of slurry on a single day. Injection depth was 300 m. Leveling surveys were run several days before and several days after the injections. An array of eight high-precision borehole tiltmeters monitored ground deformations continuously for a period of several weeks. Analysis of the leveling and the tilt measurements revealed surface uplifts as great as 25 mm and tilts of tens of microradians during each injection. Furthermore, partial recovery (subsidence) of the ground took place during the days following an injection, accompanied by shifts in the position of maximum resultant uplift. Interpretation of the tilt measurements is consistent with stable widening and extension of hydraulic fractures with subhorizontal orientations. Comparison of the measured tilt patterns with fracture orientations established from logging of observation wells suggests that shearing parallel to the fracture planes accompanied fracture dilation. This interpretation is supported by measured tilts and ground uplifts that were as much as 100 percent greater than those expected from fracture dilation alone. Models of elastically anisotropic overburden rock do not explain the measured tilt patterns in the absence of shear stresses in the fracture planes. This work represents the first large-scale hydraulic-fracturing experiment in which the possible effects of material anisotropy and fracture-parallel shears have been measured and interpreted.

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Pages: 15

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NTIS, PC A02/MF A01.

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  • 26. U.S. symposium on rock mechanics, Rapid City, SD, USA, 26 Jun 1985

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  • Other: DE85014141
  • Report No.: CONF-850671-19
  • Grant Number: AC05-84OR21400
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 5501808
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc1092534

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Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports

Reports, articles and other documents harvested from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information.

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  • January 1, 1985

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  • Feb. 10, 2018, 10:06 p.m.

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  • March 28, 2018, 1:46 p.m.

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Holzhausen, G.R.; Haase, C.S.; Stow, S.H. & Gazonas, G. Hydraulic-fracture growth in dipping anisotropic strata as viewed through the surface deformation field, article, January 1, 1985; United States. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1092534/: accessed September 25, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.