Limitations of retarded (bisulfite) x-ray film processing Page: 3 of 8
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The most important factors for successful use of the retarded processing
procedure are temperature control, constant and uniform hand agitation of the
film in the developer solution, and careful observation of the images as they
begin to appear. If density-gradient information is desired, the film must be
transferred to a stop bath at the point when the resolved images lie in a
linear density region. This is not always possible because the image-exposure
latitude may range from below the linear region to saturation.
In the application described here, Kodak (Powered) X-Ray Developer is
mixed to the normal consistency and diluted with an equal volume of water. To
make the retarded developer, 17.5 g of sodium metabisulfite is added to 946 ml
(32 oz.) of the diluted developer.
HI5T0RV OF RETARDED PROCESSING AT LLL
In 1975, emission- and absorption-line data acquired from a bent-crystal
spectrometer were recorded on Type-M film and processed in bisulfite
developer. To accommodate the full range of exposures produced by the
experiment, three Type-M film strips were transferred to the stop bath after
4.5, 6.0, or 8.0 min in the developing bath. The qualitative results were
'o get absolute intensity information for the emission-line data, an
attempt was made to obtain a bisulfite calibration for each of the three
processing periods. A set of about 40 Type-M film samples were exposed to
17.5-keV Mo(Ko) and 25.3-keV Sn(Ka) x-rays over a wide exposure range from
about 20 to about 30,000 erg/cm . Several samples exposed in the lower
fluence region (<1000 erg/cm ) at each energy were processed using standard
procedures: 5-min development in Kodak R X R at 72°F under nitrogen-bubble
agitation. Four samples exposed in a higher fluence region (>1000 erg/cm )
at 25.3 keV were not processed but reserved for later use. Both of the two
sets of film samples were divided according to exposure into three subsets and
processed in bisulfite developer at 68°F for 4.5, 6.0, or 8.0 min. Figure 1
compares the results of standard processing with those of bisulfite processing
for 25.3-keV data and shows the effects of processing time in bisulfite
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Stoering, J.P. & Dittmore, C. Limitations of retarded (bisulfite) x-ray film processing, report, October 16, 1979; Livermore, California. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1092201/m1/3/: accessed March 25, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.