Elements of quantum chromodynamics Page: 4 of 139
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quantum chrooodynamics should need little introduction, since It
already permeates almost all descriptions of strong Interaction phenomen
nowadays. We recount here very briefly the basic motivation, beginning
with some factual evidence:
1. Quarks of fractional charge and three colors aeem to be require
as constituents of hadrons In order to understand the spectrum of hadron
and their resonances,
2. The ratio of electron-quark to neutrino-quark deep Inelastic
acattering argues strongly for fractional charge of the quarks.
3. In addition to the spectroscopic evidence, the observed width
of the decay n° -*■ 2y and the large cross section for e+e~ -* hadrons is
■uccessfully understood provided there are 3 colors of quarks.
4. The color-symmetry should be exact (or very nearly so); other-
wise we would expect additional low-lying color non-singlet hadron state
states for which there la no empirical evidence.
Based on this evidence, an analogy between color and charge ie an
attractive one. Juat as the conserved charge Is closely related to the
electromagnetic force, one may search for a strong force related in a
similar way to the conserved color quantum-numbers. The most imediate
answer to this, and the one most similar to quantum electrodynamics (QED
Is quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The beginning of the analogy between
QED and QCD 19 exhibited in Table 1.
In that cable the bold-faced quantities are 3*3 matrices acting
on column vectora of quark fLelds
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Bjorken, J.D. Elements of quantum chromodynamics, report, January 1, 1979; California. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1092111/m1/4/: accessed September 25, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.