DOE solvent handbook information sheet Page: 3 of 6
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Those products which passed the immersion corrosion tests were evaluated for
volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. The VOC emission testing was
performed using a modified headspace gas chromatography and gas chromatograph -
mass spectroscopy technique. The modified technique will be used to provide
qualitative and quantitative information of volatile organic compounds in the
head space. Headspace analysis is the static sampling of the vapor phase in
thermodynamic equilibrium with the liquid phase. Headspace analysis is often
used to analyze for volatile organic compounds in aqueous samples and can
determine micrograms per liter (ppb) in solution. In this study, the
concentration of analyte in the headspace, not in solution, was determined.
Static headspace analysis was chosen over dynamic headspace (purge and trap)
analysis because of its simplicity and because it more closely models the
conditions of the cleaning process.
Solvents were initially screened using gas chromatography mass spectroscopy
(GC/MS) with semiquantitative evaluation of the constituents found. Quantitative
analysis were performed on each solvent substitute after the screening process
using GC or GC/MS. Gas chromatography conditions and column selection are being
optimized for each solvent substitute to reduce analysis time and improve
Quantitative data for each solvent is being evaluated to determine applicability
to OSHA and/or EPA regulations. Emission control technologies will be pursued
for the identified solvents which exceed permissible exposure limits (PEL) and
threshold limit values (TLV). The EPA has not yet established emission standards
for toxic air pollutants therefore PELs and TLVs will be used for these
The alternative cleaners were also evaluated for their amenability to existing
recycle/recovery processes to ultimately estimate the amount of waste which will
be generated, as well as the amount of cleaner/degreaser that users will be
required to purchase. The scope of investigation for distillation included
examining spent and fresh solvents to determine which method should be
recommended for solvent recovery application. Possible distillation methods
include precision rectification and azeotropic and extractive distillation. For
membrane separations technology, microfiltration, ultrafiltration (UF), and
nanofiltration were to be examined to determine the feasibility of using these
processes for solvent recovery. Fresh, spent, and recovered solvents were
analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) to compare their
Due to the difficulties associated with obtaining true spent solvents, tests were
conducted on simulated spent solvents. For paint strippers, paint chips obtained
from a solid C0? blasting paint removing demonstration project were dissolved in
fresh solvents to generate simulated spent solvents. For biodegradable cleaners,
wax was dissolved in fresh solvents to generate simulated spent solvents.
Distillation tests demonstrated a general feasibility for recovery of the
substitute solvents. For single-component paint strippers, the recovery
procedure is a relatively simple, single-temperature distill ation/precis1 on
rectification. For multi-component paint strippers, di still ation/preci siori
rectification at multiple temperatures is needed. For either single- or multi-
component paint strippers, vacuum distillation may be required, depending on the
thermal stability of the solvent components.
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Chavez, A.A. DOE solvent handbook information sheet, report, January 1, 1992; United States. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1069270/m1/3/: accessed April 21, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.