Quarks and gluons in hadrons and nuclei Page: 8 of 31
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2. COLOR, THE PAULI PRINCIPLE, AND SPIN-FLAVOR CORRELATIONS
If quarks possess a property called color, any quark being able to carry any
one of three colors (say red, yellow, blue), then the n- (and any baryon) can be
built from distinguishable quarks:
St- CSR SY SB '.
If quarks carry color but leptons do not, then it is natural to speculate
that color may be the property that is the source of the strong interquark forces
- absent for leptons.
Electric charges obey the rule "like repel, unlike attract" and cluster to
net uncharged systems. Colors obey a similar rule: "like colors repel, unlike
(can) attract". If the three colors form the basis of an SU(3) group, then they
cluster to form "white" systems - viz. the singlets of SU(3). Given a random soup
of colored quarks, the attractions gather them into white clusters, at which point
the color forces are saturated. The residual forces among these clusters are the
nuclear forces whose origin will be mentioned later.
If quark (Q) and antiquark (Q) are the 3 and 3 of color SU(3), then combining
up to three together gives SU(3) multiplets of dimensions as follows (see Ref. 3):
QQ = 3 x 3 = 6 + 3
QQ = 3 x 3 = 8 + 1
The QQ contains a singlet - the physical mesons
QQQ = 15 + 6 + 3 + 3
QQQ = 10 + 8 + 8 + 1.
Note the singlet in QQQ - the physical baryons.
For clusters of three or less, only QQ and QQQ contain color singlets and,
moreover, these are the only states realized physically. Thus are we led to
hypothesize that only color singlets can exist free in the laboratory; in par-
ticular, the quarks will not exist as free particles.
2.2. Symmetries and Correlations in Baryons
To have three quarks in color singlet:
1 = [(RB-BR)Y + (YR-RY)B + (BY-YB)R] (1)
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Close, F. E. Quarks and gluons in hadrons and nuclei, article, December 1, 1989; Tennessee. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1058782/m1/8/: accessed March 20, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.