Quarks and gluons in hadrons and nuclei Page: 4 of 31
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electromagnetic force). These new intergluon interactions give rise to vertices
involving three or four gluons at a point, and so a text on QCD requires more than
just a coloring of Bjorken and Drell.
Now let's make a matrix to summarize how systems variously react to the
Notice that the gluon and photon are in different slots. This small differ-
ence gives rise to the different long-range phenomena in QCD compared to QED (e.g.
confinement versus ionization).
attraction of opposites
electrically zero atoms
hyperfine splitting 3S1 - 1So
Fermi-Breit in hydrogen
attraction of unlike colors
color hyperfine m - m,, mo - mN
Fermi-Breit splittings in hadron
Carry the charge fe- Z+ Quarks
\Nat Cl- Gluons
Contain the charge Atoms Hadrons
Do not feel the force Neutrinos Leptons (v,e)
Do not contain the charge Photon
Within atoms and hadrons one finds analogues. The Coulomb potential of
hydrogen has an analogue in quark systems: as the quarks' relative separations
r + o, V(r) ~ 1/r, but at large r, V(r) ~ r, presumably due to the detailed self-
interactions among the gluons that are transmitting the force. In the ground
state of hydrogen the magnetic interaction ("one photon exchange") splits the 3S1
and iSo levels. In the ground-state quark conglomerates, the high-J combinations
Here’s what’s next.
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Close, F. E. Quarks and gluons in hadrons and nuclei, article, December 1, 1989; Tennessee. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1058782/m1/4/: accessed March 22, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.