Aquifer thermal energy storage reference manual: seasonal thermal energy storage program Page: 41 of 99
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. Costs can be estimated for potential point-demand users, that is, large
commercial and industrial users with existing distribution systems such
as airports, major office complexes, and factories.
This work was performed in support of the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage
(STES) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), the Department of
Energy's lead laboratory for seasonal thermal energy storage. Funding was
provided by the Office of Advanced Conservation Technologies, U.S. Department
AQUASTOR, a computer code developed at PNL, is used to evaluate the eco-
nomics of cooling and/or heating using energy supplied by an ATES installation.
The code was adapted from GEOCITY, a code for economic evaluation of
geothermal district heating systems. It has two major parts. The supply
submodel simulates the exploration, development, and operation of an ATES
system and the transmission of this energy to a distribution center. It also
calculates the unit cost of energy. The distribution submodel simulates the
development and operation of district and/or point demand cooling (heating)
systems and calculates the unit cost of delivered energy. This investigation
focuses upon the energy supply submodel, because with a single point demand
the contribution of distribution cost to total cost is very small.
AQUASTOR can simulate nearly any financial and tax structure by varying
the rates of return on equity and debt, the debt-equity ratio, tax rates,
investment credits, and depreciation schedules. Both municipal utility and
private ownership can be simulated. The reservoir submodel and the distribu-
tion submodel may have the same or different financial structures and costs of
capital. In this investigation, we assumed municipal ownership for all cases.
The code calculates the cost of cooling by actually designing thermal
collection and delivery systems, developing cost estimates for these systems,
and simulating cash flows over the lifetime of the system. Piping, insula-
tion, pumps, and other capital items are optimized in the design, based upon
capital, operation, and maintenance costs. During the winter, cold river water
DATE ISSUED: SUPERSEDES PNL-3471 SECTION 3.2
August 1980 ISSUE DATED: New PAGE 6
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Prater, L.S. Aquifer thermal energy storage reference manual: seasonal thermal energy storage program, report, January 1, 1980; Richland, Washington. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1053829/m1/41/: accessed May 20, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.