Nonlinear materials for frequency conversion Page: 4 of 13
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The parameter B is the angular sensitivity, abk/W. Alternatively,
the walkoff angle of a critically phasematched doubler may be substituted
for the 4 product. The C coefficient is the effective nonlinear
coupling, expressed in units of power-112. For efficient conversion,
the laser peak power must exceed the threshold power of the chosen
An important conclusion of the analysis leading to expression (1) is
that the beam aperture and crystal length can always be scaled to achieve
the same conversion efficiency at any incident intensity, given a
particular power.1 In this way, deleterious effects such as stimulated
Raman scattering or optical damage can always be avoided without
sacrificing conversion efficiency, but with a necessary increase in
The concept of aperture/length scaling leads naturally to the second
figure of merit, the limiting volume2. This is given by the product of
the SHG gain length and the minimum device aperture allowed by intensity
limiting processes such as optical damage:
Vrain " I3/2
This figure of merit is an unambiguous way to distinguish two materials
with similar threshold powers. It is clearly related to the economic
impact of a given choice of materials, given equal efficiencies.
In this paper we will compare two recently discovered nonlinear
crystals, barium metaborate (BBO)3 and L-Arginine phosphate (LAP),4
to illustrate the influence of nonlinearity, angular sensitivity, and
damage threshold on these figures of merit. He will also compare these
crystals to the older materials KTP and KOP.
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Velsko, S.P. & Eimerl, D. Nonlinear materials for frequency conversion, article, March 22, 1988; California. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1052348/m1/4/: accessed June 16, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.