Effect of Rancher’s Management Philosophy, Grazing Practices, and Personal Characteristics on Sustainability Indices for North Central Texas Rangeland Page: 83
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Questions ranged in degree of skewness and kurtosis. Range of skewness was for this
section was from -3.854 to 3.085. Kurtosis ranged from -2.034 to 13.068. Expected skewness
for normal distributions is near zero, while the using the origin for computing kurtosis for a
standard normal distribution is 3 (Trochim, 2006). SPSS adjusts this by using Fisher's kurtosis,
which assumes that 3 has been subtracted to center on zero. Since SPSS was used for this
portion of the analysis, normality was assessed as skewness being within the +2 to -2 range and
kurtosis within +3 to - 3 range (Garson, 2011 e). The range of skewness and kurtosis indicate
that grouping of responses varied widely among questions. Indications are that data were not
normally distributed. Some questions will have particularly high distributions of responses both
to the left and the right of the normal distribution curve. High kurtosis values indicate
"peakedness", or a high number of responses near the mean for the question; low values indicate
thick tails, or responses spread evenly from one extreme to the other (Trochim, 2006).
Section 2, "Economic Considerations", questions were responded to with slightly more
disagreement as judged by the average score of Likert scale. The question least agreed with was
question "2.0.4"; "Decision to adopt my grazing system was affected because of tax measures or
depreciation considerations" (M= 4.84, SD = 1.586). The question with the most agreement
was "2.0.3"; "Deterioration of range conditions will cause long-term economic difficulties" (M=
1.74, SD 0.988). Once again skewness and kurtosis were noteworthy ranging from -1.442 to
4.162 and -2.020 to 21.640 respectively. Indications are that data are not normally distributed.
Data are slightly more symmetrical in their degree of skewness, but range in response varied
from a very tight cluster around a mean answer, to even distribution across the response range.
Section 3, "Native Rangeland Management", had questions pertaining to land
management. It contained a question that was considered to be one of the key indicators for this
study, based on the literature review. This question, "3.1", ask respondents to characterize their
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Becker, Wayne. Effect of Rancher’s Management Philosophy, Grazing Practices, and Personal Characteristics on Sustainability Indices for North Central Texas Rangeland, dissertation, December 2011; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103289/m1/94/: accessed March 25, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .